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中日韩都用筷子,但筷子的画风怎么差那么多?丨杂物科考队

首先MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2deKq9y8-i,我们严正声明7528803dfcd3df73a6410f1a6255f01dceba106a,筷子毫无疑问是中国人发明的KjVhMzU1MDI5YmJmYzU=。筷子被东亚大陆上的祖先发明之后6f4a13e9adf446520b250a9e82e67d4f366f5dee,逐渐向周边地区传播017531c7011ecbb315b9e6f2a8ed2067c3ebe98a。最终dd7a0babb684206b0a6da861418a12f2,筷子形成了以中国为中心926a3ef0b8dd62909575486c0bf3bb13,包括朝鲜半岛、日本和东南亚的势力范围4ecc6bbcdacec5dbb66b7178560a623b145b93bb。虽然都用筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2deGa9y8ei,但是中日韩三国的筷子有相当大的差异MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2deGixqLmi,可谓是9eae27ccec471ba9fc7dc02f9ce3b3c2ec49c904,一筷各表IzVhMzU1MDI5YmM0MDY=b43358732bd5ec76b40f3994a1613ceec4c8bdb6

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HkKqwy7Wi

接下来你将看到:JjVhMzU1MDI5YTYyN2I=

JjVhMzU1MDI5YTYzYjQ=

  ● 老祖宗的筷子也是不断演化的ITVhMzU1MDI5YTY0Zjk=

  ● 筷子在东亚的征服史MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HkGSxtcui

  ● 啥样的食材JDVhMzU1MDI5YjBkMmM=,决定了啥样的筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HkGW9pcui

 8b783eff658b8e738a03aae27ed52d17bb83d4e5

对漆筷情有独钟的值班编辑 / 老梁MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HkGixtbmi

bdf394b9fd28e6387b790aa8377875130fb80d53

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HkZy9qLmi

老祖宗的筷子也是不断演化的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HkZ6wzr2i

  -+-dbaf9ef111f59cc228aec54be8679df2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HkaCypbGi

筷子最初的名字叫b9dc68883bdfb524ee19dca09a3e21d5e1d575e1

a2f21fd218753da7b77395b3773d264f

“箸”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2ghGOw28eiJTVhMzU1MDI5YTc0NTI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HmmOytb2i

今天所能见到的较早的筷子IzVhMzU1MDI5YjBlODY=,材质是用骨头制成02a1efd552638189151a48026a6e5d8935d123a9,称骨箸dbd45bb4216a72cd4be5b4272a465aeb17639aa5。它于上世纪90年代在江苏高邮龙虬庄被发现54598b4604308ee2df6db9e3a6fbc437,距今6600-5500年XjVhMzU1MDI5YjEyNzY=,属于典型的新石器时代326270c68f7ad853cb345dbf66fbf134ba53d668。骨箸的形状NWEzNTUwMjliMTNmOQ==,一般一端平或钝平KjVhMzU1MDI5YjE1M2E=,另一端尖圆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dfGSypa2i,也有个别两端尖圆;长度在9.2-18.5厘米之间ef4aa4f36d59a81a1eea0e0141d56271ITVhMzU1MDI5YTc2YmQ=

 QDVhMzU1MDI5YTc3Zjk=

422ccaab35c24379007e0cd86c18a1bf

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2HmmiytbGi

● 龙虬庄出土的骨箸(新石器时代)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2Hm5u9tcei

 87d792a6da3fd422c33a63785c50f445

考古学家还发现了商周时期象牙箸、青铜箸等不同材质的筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dfGW9uK2i,短者17.4厘米MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dfGew28-i,长(chángXjVhMzU1MDI5YjFhOTc=,不是zhǎng)者可达28厘米KjVhMzU1MDI5YmNhOWY=。不过288cc4b2f12b7f0979581f840e0e164ce7cfef8d,这时的箸还不是吃饭的用具JDVhMzU1MDI5YmNiZTc=。按照《礼记·曲礼上》的说法a3e11d85aa2269c233ee2bd52dd0c764,箸是用来捞有羹汤的菜ca6598443330cdca6e9ad608c1fdb83f,而餐匙(古代称匕、匙)才用来进饭或者舀汤NWEzNTUwMjliY2Q2Ng==箸独霸餐桌MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dfZ-9y8ei,既扒拉米饭549fd012a4b1d90bf659c7a9f96766348e688bca,也夹拈除流食之外的食物60fa8d5a7ac0d823cdc09d902924611a,是在宋代以后慢慢形成的16c310ac5922f9a24e3f8ec11264fadbJTVhMzU1MDI5YTdlYmM=

af8b5fcf7d817b94f413bd7e4c01114e

两汉时期c6c94bb94494c5ac8ad67ac06e852673,箸的使用等级已经显现QDVhMzU1MDI5YmQwNDk=。西汉早期时多用竹箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dgGO9pc-i,而在东汉贵族们的墓穴里JTVhMzU1MDI5YjI3MzQ=,铜箸更为常见MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2giKqyta2i47e204354847007f757adba570b942dd25379112

41c78c87dd2abbfa24c83902b85fda67

等到了隋唐、五代时期KjVhMzU1MDI5YjI4ODc=,箸的质料更显夸张MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dgGe9pa2i,出现了金箸、银箸、玉箸、犀箸、木香箸JTVhMzU1MDI5YjJiNzY=,这些当然都是皇帝老爷们才能用得起、大概也只限于他们使用的食具JTVhMzU1MDI5YmQzMTc=。拜隋唐手艺人想象力的丰富MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dgZy9pbWi,这些箸中出现了一批两端细、中间粗的新型箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCemr53hGaxsqGi。有种说法认为MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dgZ6wy6mi,它们是为了满足箸的两端皆可挑刺和挟取食物之需1f243f200214438f732b4549914c421cMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2Hnq2wpcui

8c9abc69e8a1b03f71f1bf39a6b8c80e

浙江长兴下莘桥出土的银箸(唐代)7cdb58e5a72620ca33b5991cb8620319258862f2

9ea18dcf78a13ace82f3f1ff5e6e8ac5809ccf90

说起来MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dgZ-xuL2i,我们得感谢明清人7f67e79b241328a8760517f51305ca77。他们是古代劳动人民智慧的集大成者115cb8371fb85ff0f4c51d2053ff48b8,在筷子上干的事情可真不少0277ea3a79b012857adcb60d862ccab68037e5b0,有些还流芳至今:一是将“箸”改称筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dhKyw28ui,据说是船家避讳“住”音MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dhK2ypa2i,干脆改成“快儿”或者“快子”0ab95dd4c8290993e72fcb7ae821b856,后来又变成“筷子”的称呼;二是把筷子塑身成首方足圆的标准形体94b303536c49606a35d815e8eaac9b33ffc7bd4f,成为我们今天所见的模样;三是规范筷身长度2efe1de75e7aa78dd322678d9e05d18f,长度较前代为长c06834e833ad02594fbb60a7d81684620280e9d0,多在25厘米左右eca60094d82e960836053da850d180bc03b21be2aca18ba521dfece8a717ddfda18d45a3

 baa9245d405d77cb8fab44aedc174b466db4ae8c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2Hn5ywtc-i

d65003f2d0f47c80b9734e21379c69bea9391f4c

77ac1cdcdab80920f00dc28a652c1cb5

● 定陵出土的金二镶乌木箸(明代)12efd05b21607e1892217a5d263001a183aee8af

 QDVhMzU1MDI5YTkxYjg=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCembOHgKuwsqGi

筷子在东亚的征服史ef3701313e0bb61b219d9c6b659ed314c0429753

  -+-be7c710b91b5d803b3b5e2e85acf259c

JjVhMzU1MDI5YTk2ZjQ=

筷子这一代替人手夹菜的玩意abf1cde6245ab992158d675348e7c30e,因其方便好用9c0eaff35f03dd26c506bfc664b6c8748c2190bc,慢慢传播到周边地区22df6f3dae7c1410231a82da60045c28b563aadb7ff0f27a0cc7cc915a6adaedb1f91ff2

cf47195933b346348c88f78845fc7132

通常的说法是JDVhMzU1MDI5YjNlNTM=,筷子是商纣政权灭亡后QDVhMzU1MDI5YjNmOTg=,遗臣箕子带领子民来到朝鲜半岛时传入的JTVhMzU1MDI5YmRiNzA=。韩国出土的最早的筷子来自公元6世纪的公州市武宁王陵XjVhMzU1MDI5YjQxMGI=,相比中国人出土文物筷子的时间实在是太晚了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2giZy8zqmic01ca31f491228e5d76c5f67a6b598734bf9a7c3

 ITVhMzU1MDI5YTljNGY=

c0aa32b5852325b8697139def6e35b9e

IzVhMzU1MDI5YTllY2U=

33778a8ed195b87e35ec5f3a954c6ff7addb73bf

● 箕子MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KfKqytb2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KfKywpbWi

日本人对筷子的出生证明颇有些暧昧MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2giZ29y8-i。有一种观点认为MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2diKuxtbWi,筷子来自于弥生时代(公元前300-公元250年)ITVhMzU1MDI5YjQzZGM=,但都没有实物印证KjVhMzU1MDI5YmRmNTM=。中国的史书《魏志·倭人传》记载说古代日本人“手食”42749534b8a2c429f1e0231bf1702094,也都说明岛国还没有普遍使用筷子的习惯JjVhMzU1MDI5YmUwYzk=。在当时东亚文明中心的中国人眼里ITVhMzU1MDI5YjQ2ODE=,吃饭不用筷子e63ece77ee5535ccce1d3e1059bba31d,等于是乡下人、蛮夷MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gjKuwtbWi。而日本人努力想要证明公元前就在用筷子0f5a1e0a52477240631e5f18f327b2206c995da7,也是为了争一个“祖上就文明过”的地位c8bfd3ef0ec40297670f0988cefc8804MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCemb2HhGewsqGi

9db1caa9bb2d44755a7f37cb8f69bb3362be13ec

通常的说法是f0b32fd33fcfef058a7714bfcb58c6dbf1c1f944,筷子在弥生末期由中国经朝鲜半岛传入日本98a0b4c74ed18833f69bf7fc438fcb93。它由竹子加工成像镊子一样的东西JjVhMzU1MDI5YjRiYzQ=,不像现在的筷子成双成对NWEzNTUwMjliNGQzMA==,日语叫“折箸”38ca05a9d8907fc9ef26c6676768df6d。折箸也主要是在祭祀活动中使用3d502ccc843d6e18d34101322eb45272,所以被看做神器MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gjGWx28ui12211c4bcb4f64d3480aecb06ef5df9e335f4e3c

JjVhMzU1MDI5YWE4NWU=

广大的日本群众继续用手MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KfGe8tbmi

175392a951679773ee713e40353e2a84

抓饭吃MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gjGa8k62ieb61813d1f433b7c58e17ea15be193a6eb55021f

a66bcc999c57dfe566fb4f75baff76d3a1556736

来自考古界的资料说MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2diZ-8y7mi,公元5世纪时2a9d9c82f6163d30adbd7086bff669842398c757,在日本伊势神宫、出云大社等寺庙举行祭祀活动时XjVhMzU1MDI5YjUyNjI=,已经使用一种称做“神箸”的箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gjGiwy8ei。它两根一套MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2djKy8uLGi,一端圆形f7861145b3538581e1c7cd585d45aeca,另一端尖形JTVhMzU1MDI5YjU2NDI=,与现在的箸已相当接近db530ec84f769a1f5dd63b64f8da1e9b5fa3022cXjVhMzU1MDI5YWFmMzc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KfaCypami

此后MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2djGWypc-i,日本与中国之间的文化交流相当频繁a7d3a4e8f564302f46a5489eab3f0d31c45ff1be。奈良时期(公元7世纪左右)KjVhMzU1MDI5YjU4ZTk=,圣德太子以小野妹子为遣隋使a5f5f859c8ce2e8628e5e2f5d62e09ca,出访中土MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCemr6KiGS8sqGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KgKuwpami

JjVhMzU1MDI5YWIzNWQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KgK28tbGi

1e5ddffa5513b05e619fef1d747d9b8e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KgGWxtcei

● 小野妹子(男)0fd90d4bb02321d0f6a384aac2e8cc1c4000ebe2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KgGiwqLmi

小野妹子为中原朝野上下使用筷子的进食方式所折服8ab0ab42c26c8c4ee624b3f8aba0ff3e0b39db3a,就将筷子带回日本NWEzNTUwMjliZWZlMQ==。于是d2471734e40d2c9c5bc8fc3aaf324f3a408bafd1,圣德太子在一次招待以裴世清为团长的中国使节团时JTVhMzU1MDI5YjVlMzk=,依照小野妹子的建议MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2djZ-ypami,用箸接待了客人MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gkKqwzrWi。到这个时候8cfe28e4e805cd057b88e91fe2207a8aee45d817,日本人似乎忘记了先前的箸只是祭祀的神才享有的专宠MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dkKuxpbmi,箸在贵族群里得到使用34f8dfcd821bb695ae25429cc54fbc99,并慢慢向平民扩散e9835f138a1e112625edb4928be860953566a9e1fc18e2ea892aa20bf983d5d9400a6656

 IzVhMzU1MDI5YWJkMGQ=

公元8世纪时5dc2932a2296ea954ea00475e680c918,箸在岛国已相当普及5324ac862e61e576056c9122499e21a6,成为各个阶层都喜闻乐见的食具58f7c40f26ea5d9eb14f5cb6ef10c469181015f9。当时还把它称为“唐箸”396d0836e757ee369d95c8bb19c5c645,意为来自大唐的筷子3508d641b427090ef063db0a307a8b4a。不过MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dkGeypbmi,彼时岛国人似乎比唐朝人更为讲究5bc0242db5569eff82a4f51351b24f91,把箸分为荤素两副:吃鱼和禽类的筷子叫“真鱼箸”JjVhMzU1MDI5YjZjNGQ=,吃素菜的筷子叫“菜箸”467851f274351842288300b74f2afa305191bebc2a9bdb7346e74f0d36cf9b03e1c6c71b6b63e9d0

 49e0abfc3ee8704484edaf4d8d79f51c

50d04bfa249b51f38fb7680f29e625093dacc6ef

啥样的食材XjVhMzU1MDI5YjZkOTc=,决定了啥样的筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KhKuwy8-i

  -+-MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KhKyx27Wi

b460e36075cf878e540a60888cee8b38

作为源于中国的进食工具e205cb3fa0eae631b8b2d3e77f534979,筷子尽管在韩日两国间得到了广泛使用f2e69c5301d114117225ff9661c23305,但它们的形状却走上了不同的发展道路6697c0245dd83c81632a7b881411c7a89abd079eMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KhGO9zrGi

da4583895c1dbf46ba95f898a5f1a5bc74d4c0f9

从长度上说fb415557bc2731ca16276dfac159b7ec,一般而言KjVhMzU1MDI5YjcyYmU=,中国的筷子最长MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dmq2wpcui,韩国次之MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dmmOxpcui,日本敬陪末座JDVhMzU1MDI5YmY5N2M=。大约日本人崇尚分餐制8437ff7afdb9313d55877537b7d46400,也没有给人夹菜的习惯a79b61a04cfc7b4bb13afc1974468c1b,就不必像中国人那样在八仙桌上长距离拈取菜肴220063a3bb17ed353bb314abf4aefa63MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KhGa8zqmi

 ITVhMzU1MDI5YWNhMzM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KhZuytaWi

KjVhMzU1MDI5YWNjZDM=

be70b0e71b74eb0fdfb54b7fee9af75b

● 从上至下中、韩、日三国筷子JjVhMzU1MDI5YWNmNjc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KhaC8uLmi

长度不一是一方面NWEzNTUwMjliNzk3MA==,中日韩三国的筷子长相又是一方面MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gkZywpbGib241f3c5d9d8f848a1db465fb4d67a2616ac25bb

08a84961fb671c7cb6bb0fe54ca6ac69

我们的筷子足部往往又圆又粗MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dmmi8zq2i,韩国的筷子筷身纤细a17c0e0a102afce7e40a22efe7e7d391d8011612,足部扁平MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dm52xuLGi,据说这是方便夹豆子3ad26f5a009d71f6d0f001cc9b22ddb7,又容易在小碟里撕开泡菜MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gkZ2xpa2i。日本的箸则头尖身短MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2dm5-9zrGi,这与日本人爱吃鱼有关系0ff189fccb1f3522c0e312a69fbf496c,因为它比较适合挑鱼刺0d66ceafec7e263af59eecbaf5188b945f429e36。不过JjVhMzU1MDI5YjgyYzg=,话说回来80e4c4c1c5045b5f4381d9752c58accfc0f3c3db,日本的箸似乎保留了隋唐遗风66e57d0bea361357fd01060f9a883771,如上文所说171a7c424f77d549db3364e25f4b56f14805c5a7,后者就曾创制一批两端细中间粗的筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gkaCwpbmia283a80a94747cb7684cbd626d913b28

 fee3af7c28fc1c07eeeb7bf640dd44c8

d561bb47c3275b47243bfce014cb5c89247001ed

ITVhMzU1MDI5YWQ4ZjM=

0aea99d725ef132a6a60a3d735b36e7131a8c3af

● 日本筷子07898929ea154a6b88c7164c43507762220867d9

 235693e4b0305e19311730faf0d0a831

三国之中c3f9f9a86f66b884b6a564fc5caceaa0,韩国的筷子材质最为特别MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCemrN3nmaxsqGi,用金属制成MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2teKqytcei。这与其历史文化大有关系914ff8a26077bbb545ebf7a992029b22f9241369。韩国崇尚金属f6a97edd578c3ae70ebd759441c92534,更崇尚身份的等级制1a9a0e572161615e7bb0ee570d3ab9f6fc3993d5,上流社会使用金、银等筷子KjVhMzU1MDI5YjhkN2U=,普通群众使用的多是铁筷6a23e393e3490b58f7ad0c18881ebcafe15692a8,到后来就基本变成了不锈钢的筷子11b5cc466a006a03ce8341a238804d50。金属筷契合了韩国的饮食结构8a05368f78414e1b24bdf6fa0ff404c0。因为它们耐高温、不易变形d325b14b5b70dcffb99b173a24c708cbf1fdb117,而韩国人偏向料理和烤肉是地球人都知道的JTVhMzU1MDI5YzA3NTk=IzVhMzU1MDI5YWRlMDk=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KiZ-xqL2i

值得一提的是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2doqqxuK2i,韩国保留了古时中国的用餐礼仪a39a408b4e347b30b3a8161f85a2c2ba。他们在用餐时筷子与勺子并用f66b92253196681d1b9bac88aaa8c4a4,筷子负责夹菜MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2doqy9zrGi,勺子则负责取汤菜和吃饭MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCem7F3oqq9sqGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KiaCytbmi

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KjKq9qK2i

QDVhMzU1MDI5YWUzMjA=

8fa6bbea06c4ffa675ca62ece70a7ce308ae9661

KjVhMzU1MDI5YWU1OWY=

● 韩国筷子与匙468c3d813b812010a49ddf5a0c597953

08365ceffb0c8fd9fbdc02f9f0dfaa5f97970641

对比韩国MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2domOxy62i,日本的筷子就显得有些寒碜了XjVhMzU1MDI5YzBiNzI=。从表面上看0b56086b21ee20ab5467358a95531d05,日本“地不分南北MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCemrOHmq2woqGi,人无分老幼”ITVhMzU1MDI5Yjk5OTE=,使用的都是木筷MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2domi9pc-i,看似平等fc95e760ca8eebc65ecfc6796c224dd944431c60,实际上是因为它的矿产资源太有限了607ca160d1af5a8a2be9c2da61f9c8df6bed9163。例如JTVhMzU1MDI5YjlkOTc=,纵横日本市场五百年的“渡来钱”ad3d6b032f503947e98b08f5b83efc4c,还是从中国漂流过海来的66520d2c5eb3eb84974ca2b6370ee17dcfbe236cIzVhMzU1MDI5YWU5NDk=

fb560cb1f1a158d926ea7c14e42af80eb1f68a3e

尽管如此be22d90d93090d2530cb894b9806d58effb3e2da,日本人还是能找到满足其虚荣心的方式829358c0be7991a0f86c049b72e6e97fec4c95fb。江户时代初期(即公元16世纪)JTVhMzU1MDI5YmExYWQ=,岛国就流行在筷子上涂漆KjVhMzU1MDI5YmEzMGY=,用以彰显有钱人的富有和尊贵496956d2cfcb2cc2cdb0501c4c3bfdfb。发展到后来MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gfK2xtcei,漆筷不仅在实用上得到发展19fbc312fc449f3090bce87c619bd8b3,而且向工艺品的方向进步55651a4f838699171eba4b9c37a4fc2d0a955aad,一举又成为馈赠亲友的礼品ITVhMzU1MDI5YzEyMGY=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KjZu9uK2i

d72d99d875b8052f6fc3e70ba40114cda652834d

再往后1c33bf0dcec8710277b3b6d16375324c,筷子似乎成为日本经济的晴雨表MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2tfKyxuLmi。上世纪80年代之际0e9852d154a41a33e322beb1c3719af9,日本特别流行金光闪闪的箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCemr2KfGO9yKGi,而到了90年代MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gfZy8y7mi,“素颜”筷子又成为了主流2259e1fc1b8533d1df93b53735bc533f28cb33becef0dcdd17896fba4b7e67fb8da51ac3

JTVhMzU1MDI5YWYwNTc=

筷子发展到今天NWEzNTUwMjliYWUxOA==,可以说QDVhMzU1MDI5YmFmOGI=,尽管中国人拥有发明筷子的专利权MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2gfaC9tami,但是传播到不同国家XjVhMzU1MDI5YmIyNDY=,却在在彰显了不同的形态和文化特色MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2tfGSwy8ei。历史的浩荡洪流23a7b7def8d73a28ccf99e0eaab3a907,最终沉淀下来一点痕迹MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2ggK29tcui,就落在了筷子这样的细枝末节之上522d5a0b8eaa3eef46beff99963653ab7fefd1f58e41d09ea3502848abc4f024

参考资料:MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KkKu9uLmi

李庆祥:《日本的箸与文化》21d56912222f3fcf0056d94a8d6647c4c78078b6,载《解放军外国语学院学报》MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2ggGW8zr2i,2009(5);JDVhMzU1MDI5YWY0NzE=

沙媛媛、王晓葵:《筷箸与日本文化》a92ab0e5218a87176e36702290f80e5b,载《文化学刊》QDVhMzU1MDI5YmJhOTc=,2015(2);MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KkGO8zqmi

赵传松:《中国筷箸文化初探——兼与韩国筷子文化比较》MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiVgXp7Zr2ggZu9taWi,载《山东商业职业技术学院学报》832b025a3f343e6c9ff5332e0a8f3c14,2016(3);d008fbb5c43233a71b44999aa3fe79268ffc9541

蔡秋英:《东亚文化的食文化考察》JTVhMzU1MDI5YmJlNTI=,参见  www.juen.ac.jp/kaken/24531177/rep1sai.pdf#search=%27%E7%AE%B8+%E6%97%A5%E4%B8%AD%E9%9F%93%27 MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCem7GHm5-wsqGid2f1a6efff3b79a759c845cbbfaa667653d3ed06

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiVgXp7Zr2KkGe8tbmi

END0f17a68977a5759641e6d4cb814b0a8408e8a7c1

b41e58ab6b80a1d1335f140927814b081f16a91a

 NWEzNTUwMjlhZmRkYg==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrjbgaCemb6gjK28sqGi

b8c6a234704880bc04486e3801406cd3

 

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