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中日韩都用筷子,但筷子的画风怎么差那么多?丨杂物科考队

首先6510bf304622f6b529935902349c18fa,我们严正声明NTllNzM3NzEzMzdiYg==,筷子毫无疑问是中国人发明的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlkKqwpcui。筷子被东亚大陆上的祖先发明之后691a441ba75cff60eea6e136173776358d17e48d,逐渐向周边地区传播3cb20c5b0c36d1ce82341d91f1bd0cc0。最终df7e6c6c09b8c2b920622380acf912a1,筷子形成了以中国为中心416611cfb86fedd1d68af74f6518272996e47155,包括朝鲜半岛、日本和东南亚的势力范围JDU5ZTczNzcxM2YzYjQ=。虽然都用筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjZuQtsbegrCVqbGthZ2wy8ui,但是中日韩三国的筷子有相当大的差异JDU5ZTczNzcxMzNlNmM=,可谓是IzU5ZTczNzcxMzNmOWU=,一筷各表XjU5ZTczNzcxM2Y1MTM=QDU5ZTczNzcxMjlhYWY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGdo5u9zq2i

接下来你将看到:fb6e93acb0730db1d580caaee28f5cf73d9de0b5

KjU5ZTczNzcxMjllYmQ=

  ● 老祖宗的筷子也是不断演化的NTllNzM3NzEyYTAxYw==

  ● 筷子在东亚的征服史5bbe3cf8c16e2cc8958ef23343a9a934

  ● 啥样的食材MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGthaC9tcei,决定了啥样的筷子dc00eee16b8705eea000a0a2b7637487

 1b8d35a6084c9f345ad77776fd229ddd9b9901b4

对漆筷情有独钟的值班编辑 / 老梁e4ad2fd2d6a0b3e9488115fc441c5d75

70d9b5d7db90c94135c29231a2472cf5d6ab6d25

6031024921491247de123a05ec5e815a

老祖宗的筷子也是不断演化的3ca435c3d4090e24e30786557e4265430b8582b4

  -+-MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3qr2Ho52ysqGi

d20be044808ce0a6c47a06a1817142a4

筷子最初的名字叫c8fa3098e31d0d413ce019f575873006

6aa8549fdcb67d14a1d306eca572aaab

“箸”b5dbebf1e6316ec81d0c4fb80cde69bfMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3qr2KjZ6wyKGi

7eebf1f17ed81d3a7dd98f1b8ddbfc31a53e6478

今天所能见到的较早的筷子132faf2caa9d602b631a4fdb49d749e9,材质是用骨头制成43aa3348194d23de1d71b35b89d2668b7d939339,称骨箸6d142ddf3063f02c4f6579d1ab12d664。它于上世纪90年代在江苏高邮龙虬庄被发现117f6bdc9a8ee45a97dbd437af06d007,距今6600-5500年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtiGSxtcui,属于典型的新石器时代MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFlkGewpcui。骨箸的形状JDU5ZTczNzcxMzQ3Nzg=,一般一端平或钝平223a6c84eba01dce0c90a49fed8841f2,另一端尖圆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtiGiwpbWi,也有个别两端尖圆;长度在9.2-18.5厘米之间MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3q76domWxsqGi79d59ebe71e140856b290bdd48eb945b7d36279b

 23464b8e9a12976e734911e3245997c7ef831429

9db625dce689f50553a8cea21881d59f90013549

XjU5ZTczNzcxMmI2MzM=

● 龙虬庄出土的骨箸(新石器时代)41a661902d73c7698a9a446dd452cec6

 b0721173e0512fe47045d3f6adc5aae5

考古学家还发现了商周时期象牙箸、青铜箸等不同材质的筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtiZuw272i,短者17.4厘米fa698b2f2fb37ee377c378e5b7e0676e,长(cháng1a1f7f1730115a70a946365dd6fec683,不是zhǎng)者可达28厘米MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlkZu8y6Wi。不过MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtiZ-xpami,这时的箸还不是吃饭的用具QDU5ZTczNzcxM2ZjZjQ=。按照《礼记·曲礼上》的说法bebdc83bfad05dd3f8088adec3401613,箸是用来捞有羹汤的菜MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtjKq9zrmi,而餐匙(古代称匕、匙)才用来进饭或者舀汤0958094c69b2b310ed2d05e13e3693342399bfaf箸独霸餐桌MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3q7KHgGawoqGi,既扒拉米饭MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtjK29paWi,也夹拈除流食之外的食物e971b0af1b4246c4650d72039833db37,是在宋代以后慢慢形成的3c714578321b400eb96f12c4a6dbe8fb25d3e21f5a455c18c3da3910e51cfe6f92b53d3241efcbb8

XjU5ZTczNzcxMmJiN2I=

两汉时期f3c98b9b4dcb5f809c86df3902408d9b390b2e25,箸的使用等级已经显现5f6671316450116d4fab3f1fa7f9487d26c8a2ce。西汉早期时多用竹箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtjGa9zq2i,而在东汉贵族们的墓穴里f931f846ba7706e6be63a1a94f4b7faa,铜箸更为常见a70f8d06611f0276e278c10f4075dbe06f1db48715b015e23bfd648357a9d558c1c6a4fe

c9d7b656a79b27716175ed168c1944bb

等到了隋唐、五代时期MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtjZuypa2i,箸的质料更显夸张214a5bce750ed13a1e32b99f3d8269c1,出现了金箸、银箸、玉箸、犀箸、木香箸ITU5ZTczNzcxMzVlZGQ=,这些当然都是皇帝老爷们才能用得起、大概也只限于他们使用的食具c1b325c8965808fff60b81be2330b3f4。拜隋唐手艺人想象力的丰富405253348e6fb185cae799724d6e94d5,这些箸中出现了一批两端细、中间粗的新型箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3eK29ta2i。有种说法认为MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtkKqxk6mi,它们是为了满足箸的两端皆可挑刺和挟取食物之需MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3eGSwy8ui79da50d9b3aeb9314cb0bf0069ad7d0540182574

2aec6af599daa43c5a1f13a8c84ce19e8c699e01

浙江长兴下莘桥出土的银箸(唐代)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjZuQtsbegrCVqbGghKuwpbWi

058ccde7a2dd593ccd32795a2592cdad30455180

说起来MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtkKu8zq2i,我们得感谢明清人691359f7902d6f223cc17e8294b36f35。他们是古代劳动人民智慧的集大成者66b2e6ef6f39386a70704c3416cfb8703a3d7fa9,在筷子上干的事情可真不少MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtkGOxy7mi,有些还流芳至今:一是将“箸”改称筷子XjU5ZTczNzcxMzY2YTE=,据说是船家避讳“住”音fac3b1ca696f0eae6da746b2fe18c187,干脆改成“快儿”或者“快子”8c2f16b93af7c296150b2021d467c2786bbf4b20,后来又变成“筷子”的称呼;二是把筷子塑身成首方足圆的标准形体3644244f64b5b2632700a5087b05ef26a7e7adad,成为我们今天所见的模样;三是规范筷身长度XjU5ZTczNzcxMzZjMjc=,长度较前代为长MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtkZ2xzrmi,多在25厘米左右JDU5ZTczNzcxNDA4YjA=2986225c2fbe92c4fe70bf8a6615b013

 a68955210e03961f1744561ac11a0b1a

568f2e42da4be636dbb288d340222b3d

d06b6267a2d335330436fd3700eeef33

c3cbd80dc0eb408d97312d2a4e6939c0ed1e5d30

● 定陵出土的金二镶乌木箸(明代)MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3qr2to6CwoqGi

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3qr1lgGSxsqGi

ff0b9dd9e30e050f6e8a63e96b509d44

筷子在东亚的征服史00e50b9e233615f8fb57a65934180cf9

  -+-MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjZuQtsbegrCVqbGghaCwk7Gi

b10050153f1f715676728ffc1569b276b2f3ff22

筷子这一代替人手夹菜的玩意ac20d37e4a1c8d2131659acf9da0615554b366fb,因其方便好用6974e5cfde1bb8fcb82e94d1fafb54ee,慢慢传播到周边地区MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3eGe9zq2i3636defa0bd08e2a17d9255620b0493c0bfe8911

XjU5ZTczNzcxMmQzY2Y=

通常的说法是354c32615bb954f5a984c919175b9f0f,筷子是商纣政权灭亡后afea73f78ad37d86ffab6a15a3fe1340,遗臣箕子带领子民来到朝鲜半岛时传入的MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3eZuxpami。韩国出土的最早的筷子来自公元6世纪的公州市武宁王陵716929b166c1a40afc826aabf3c04e98225d52d3,相比中国人出土文物筷子的时间实在是太晚了dfee4e8a50615c839df2f29082995dfeb8f8024cMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjZuQtsbegrCVqbGgiGOwtbGi

 JDU5ZTczNzcxMmQ2NzU=

710010613e6fd14c697f9639bbd2a5c00f09140b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGgiGewtcei

20990dedb42e6e42b461d345d27f6142

● 箕子JTU5ZTczNzcxMmRiOGU=

0c09d140d0c727cfbe4a730c3542e7ad

日本人对筷子的出生证明颇有些暧昧QDU5ZTczNzcxNDBkYzY=。有一种观点认为fabe63564da7ec4a7d0ba10534663572,筷子来自于弥生时代(公元前300-公元250年)MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtmmSxzr2i,但都没有实物印证MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3eZ-wtbWi。中国的史书《魏志·倭人传》记载说古代日本人“手食”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtmmW828ui,也都说明岛国还没有普遍使用筷子的习惯0d911608134fdf2d3ba389d98452cd54。在当时东亚文明中心的中国人眼里MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtmmewzrWi,吃饭不用筷子JDU5ZTczNzcxMzdhOGU=,等于是乡下人、蛮夷a63e8b3037fc25d61036c35e6a0240a6。而日本人努力想要证明公元前就在用筷子XjU5ZTczNzcxMzdiZDc=,也是为了争一个“祖上就文明过”的地位MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3fKywtcuiXjU5ZTczNzcxMmRlMDA=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjZuQtsbegrCVqbGgiZ-xpb2i

通常的说法是23a32ddd962a80ba398717d829794474,筷子在弥生末期由中国经朝鲜半岛传入日本b96753cead5d031b5e73eab8cdc3c6ca382374e0。它由竹子加工成像镊子一样的东西KjU5ZTczNzcxMzdlNjE=,不像现在的筷子成双成对MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtm5-8tcei,日语叫“折箸”QDU5ZTczNzcxNDE1YmE=。折箸也主要是在祭祀活动中使用MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtnqqwzq2i,所以被看做神器6b06a992af7d70620913da3fc867d06635d84cf11f51e809daab7b199be33dfc

15f5893669ee4542612dc4f10cc629a4

广大的日本群众继续用手KjU5ZTczNzcxMmUyZmI=

NTllNzM3NzEyZTQzMQ==

抓饭吃1f69c722e9c8d5c1ae5bd88dac0dbd05MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGgjGOx27mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGgjGSytaWi

来自考古界的资料说dec5f094daeea7306d39afea52daadb1a2a7e2fe,公元5世纪时JTU5ZTczNzcxMzgzZTA=,在日本伊势神宫、出云大社等寺庙举行祭祀活动时bd32d0dc342d7d7e935b108560f090f1d4a0b001,已经使用一种称做“神箸”的箸IzU5ZTczNzcxNDE5OTM=。它两根一套JDU5ZTczNzcxMzg2YTA=,一端圆形2a1a07082e68e1aadf4f0eb4e3175401,另一端尖形3b71d4000c77ef0fee2a99da937a033a,与现在的箸已相当接近NTllNzM3NzE0MWIxNg==9d90d77bfc733a1db539a050be9a6015

8490bad6972cfc20f7666ee6a7850d0a79e26211

此后69486938e2fa9873732e2a95adf550f3144a719f,日本与中国之间的文化交流相当频繁32d4bb74532cecfffec9048e5dcb5435。奈良时期(公元7世纪左右)24309ed69b7ce2d2221722224f98862694fdde96,圣德太子以小野妹子为遣隋使JTU5ZTczNzcxMzhkMGQ=,出访中土KjU5ZTczNzcxNDFkYmM=IzU5ZTczNzcxMmU5ZjU=

9152c1661c7eaf2dc5d27b2afd7f6c1210e3f884

JDU5ZTczNzcxMmVjMjc=

57431928ff85fb1e6e6e183d4a2144a7bc94e272

KjU5ZTczNzcxMmVlN2I=

● 小野妹子(男)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGgjZ-8zrmi

300f573a0886ff7c66ed701f8e9708b5e2d0edbe

小野妹子为中原朝野上下使用筷子的进食方式所折服MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtn56xtbmi,就将筷子带回日本MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3fZ-wpc-i。于是5727e80577010c84794020d5a1e5eda3,圣德太子在一次招待以裴世清为团长的中国使节团时ITU5ZTczNzcxMzkxMWM=,依照小野妹子的建议caffefe3075b63a06b99a7a2c5d4f7e9,用箸接待了客人732c60f907a20c6e8bac399bab5efbf619e80037。到这个时候NTllNzM3NzEzOTNhOQ==,日本人似乎忘记了先前的箸只是祭祀的神才享有的专宠MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtoq29y7Gi,箸在贵族群里得到使用08288e6218d707b98ca922dbfb1a889d,并慢慢向平民扩散MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3gKqyta2iITU5ZTczNzcxMmYxZmM=

 92835264b9bad2c62cedb7985af21fff67aaced2

公元8世纪时5d876a736f458e8c90409dc7e2b1653a,箸在岛国已相当普及1506263bc76608fe2e94ed7e2eeab445,成为各个阶层都喜闻乐见的食具MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3gKu9pcei。当时还把它称为“唐箸”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtomiw26mi,意为来自大唐的筷子ITU5ZTczNzcxNDI0MzA=。不过ITU5ZTczNzcxMzliNzM=,彼时岛国人似乎比唐朝人更为讲究6a4c4c7676d838bbf51dd8f31027ab86,把箸分为荤素两副:吃鱼和禽类的筷子叫“真鱼箸”MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjZuQtsbegrCVqbGto56wpbmi,吃素菜的筷子叫“菜箸”XjU5ZTczNzcxNDI1OTg=ed7695e5368fc85229c3a71c43f5c8a2482edc7f

 bad6efb24c34ec98b1b32d49f88121f5

9e404a65908c047006f1acace93918bc6570765b

啥样的食材KjU5ZTczNzcxMzlmNzE=,决定了啥样的筷子5810b31e604d67e82504aadd8eaff813

  -+-0a6a501d277f2c95ca1dc7a4db6202f2e7423d35

136d3cd28a7f1682c6059d807c767e53

作为源于中国的进食工具837c55cd79a07e5efa1be21652ebd072770e0f33,筷子尽管在韩日两国间得到了广泛使用f7b25a388ed44ed9cea997268b278e95099e3e01,但它们的形状却走上了不同的发展道路ITU5ZTczNzcxNDI2ZTE=1ee28efd331844157a1cd13cc06b81c7

JTU5ZTczNzcxMmZkNDg=

从长度上说MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlfKyxpami,一般而言MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFlfK2ytcei,中国的筷子最长JTU5ZTczNzcxM2E1ZjQ=,韩国次之f2c91d6da7e4bf3331a618b17d5df1f7d00b51a4,日本敬陪末座JjU5ZTczNzcxNDI4M2Q=。大约日本人崇尚分餐制JjU5ZTczNzcxM2E4Y2Q=,也没有给人夹菜的习惯ae960f9dd2c1f5608eaf3c1b168d0b0e9dfdeb45,就不必像中国人那样在八仙桌上长距离拈取菜肴42d130cf15bd21012b968d666217e0036066865aMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGgkZ6ytaWi

 d2890db0924013179868373fdd0e4e81465a1750

59a3738f11d9cf7d41eb8bd0a1ea6cdb

ff45550c9c621d2bababe857aac2de2a

ITU5ZTczNzcxMzAzYTc=

● 从上至下中、韩、日三国筷子f511fef5bb2eab03e4a0188cbb5e36d9b9f54f3f

ff08e7be67bf4878bbc9ca4ebe9b4a8d

长度不一是一方面XjU5ZTczNzcxM2FiOGI=,中日韩三国的筷子长相又是一方面e3981031561d61a577ad82bbe9afa495ff0a830d5914ac098682425a0d1210eb

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGteGa8uLmi

我们的筷子足部往往又圆又粗8a68d2ea715124c3457b50b81e7bf0db,韩国的筷子筷身纤细MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFlfZ6wy6Wi,足部扁平bd5a127d6b557fd4b8be4b2c83aef180,据说这是方便夹豆子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlgKqwpa2i,又容易在小碟里撕开泡菜JDU5ZTczNzcxNDJjM2Y=。日本的箸则头尖身短MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlgKux28ei,这与日本人爱吃鱼有关系MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlgKy8262i,因为它比较适合挑鱼刺52159097fd0396faf6a0fd2e8afe0e4e91de9b36。不过JDU5ZTczNzcxM2I1NTQ=,话说回来MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlgGS8tbWi,日本的箸似乎保留了隋唐遗风MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFlgGW9uLGi,如上文所说NTllNzM3NzEzYjk0ZQ==,后者就曾创制一批两端细中间粗的筷子21570446b5117cad64726689be9047a7274a353fe94e895d77af3969899c0380

 NTllNzM3NzEzMGI2NA==

XjU5ZTczNzcxMzBjYmY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjZuQtsbegrCVqbGteZ6wpbmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3q7F6jGW9oqGi

● 日本筷子4bec1870a1da84d18e3c42999dc1b91f

 dfef5a2c19268092f5408255d71df278

三国之中NTllNzM3NzEzYmFkOQ==,韩国的筷子材质最为特别MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlgZywy7Gi,用金属制成MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3YbGgkGSysqGi。这与其历史文化大有关系f598d6ba0db367208462889abdbac020。韩国崇尚金属JTU5ZTczNzcxM2JkOTg=,更崇尚身份的等级制e95e31e355e836ea7f603d1637a80c06b9366c32,上流社会使用金、银等筷子ba8a34e0854df2abeda2f49bfe8683218999eb9e,普通群众使用的多是铁筷7216cc072834b512e3bb284606a5620523074008,到后来就基本变成了不锈钢的筷子669aefc499f2160fd4adab19a407eea7。金属筷契合了韩国的饮食结构IzU5ZTczNzcxNDM0NDE=。因为它们耐高温、不易变形MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFlhKyxtbmi,而韩国人偏向料理和烤肉是地球人都知道的206864787afacf799143998f0132a027bcc00924da67493e283c235504e34fe8e8800043

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtfK2w28ei

值得一提的是52a09588eec033de05691c8a9632434ae1ca208d,韩国保留了古时中国的用餐礼仪XjU5ZTczNzcxNDM2ZTU=。他们在用餐时筷子与勺子并用d51e6b2a551ba4e172df53d3fc88a152ae1087aa,筷子负责夹菜7a3740522a5b5cf2fab9acc91c2b4362e99cbbf7,勺子则负责取汤菜和吃饭70f09c09d4b288fd4c2ad6dc4fbf551bJTU5ZTczNzcxMzE1YWY=

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtfGS9y72i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtfGaxpcui

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtfGe8uL2i

7496efb56c3d2433413c6692477f51a8e55dca60

● 韩国筷子与匙49a25478a4d0330f7e3ba795a534b90353117956

adae60e2e392eb5777c651b09916e9bc

对比韩国NTllNzM3NzEzYzg5ZA==,日本的筷子就显得有些寒碜了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbJ3hGex272i。从表面上看5a163579a72c4f951d98e6a13c76e0c9,日本“地不分南北MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlhZuxpbWi,人无分老幼”f3d18ab47136a72f533654514dfeff0f18d5ec76,使用的都是木筷MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbFlhZ28k7Wi,看似平等KjU5ZTczNzcxM2NmMGM=,实际上是因为它的矿产资源太有限了c5a83f5bd9256021eb5bddfbef8a3385037c3378。例如IzU5ZTczNzcxM2QwNjc=,纵横日本市场五百年的“渡来钱”eddb34caaa8365dc5568210adb17397c,还是从中国漂流过海来的61243831c9cefa3dac50113cf9d5f8a4b2bb6a8aaa4a9554e4a80fe3800fd44224d03d57

NTllNzM3NzEzMjA0Mw==

尽管如此a0fbf9643918945497e18ca4afe1d3fe2d43e8e2,日本人还是能找到满足其虚荣心的方式KjU5ZTczNzcxNDNkNzU=。江户时代初期(即公元16世纪)2f85874838e15168f33f3ef0a64c8ac3f9d0b4c5,岛国就流行在筷子上涂漆3ccfa339fe74579ca17af1a76c2208cb,用以彰显有钱人的富有和尊贵IzU5ZTczNzcxNDNlYmQ=。发展到后来JjU5ZTczNzcxM2Q3MjA=,漆筷不仅在实用上得到发展c0123825d378df61a2dcf94774ad8ab7,而且向工艺品的方向进步606d502c98e938b3907d010b51977e8ea6448183,一举又成为馈赠亲友的礼品006704672ed88c19824a51456ed0884e3d636d14MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtgKqyqLWi

QDU5ZTczNzcxMzIyYmI=

再往后394351ff08c95318d5be789bcf8cb4dd,筷子似乎成为日本经济的晴雨表MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6NpNKE3LCXgrB3YbJ3eGS9yKGi。上世纪80年代之际JDU5ZTczNzcxM2RjNjc=,日本特别流行金光闪闪的箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbFliZ28y6Wi,而到了90年代MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFliZ69y7Wi,“素颜”筷子又成为了主流ab5cb97fea20e78dd4ad64511edc9a5723a2fbf838e3d2369e0d43aff92bffb82942789745d5ac15

88f3ef127dbc12d89a8aef98869cf9c8

筷子发展到今天a7d45562e34f2f572d12cd57ab470b9c52715ab5,可以说NTllNzM3NzEzZTFiMA==,尽管中国人拥有发明筷子的专利权d69491bfa7e50541d78f7a0272457c245696b214,但是传播到不同国家20bca22af6ff65ecaf6577450cb9ea1e,却在在彰显了不同的形态和文化特色9f077b8e0333a2d7e2442a5fe54c4c8b611e559f。历史的浩荡洪流JDU5ZTczNzcxM2U1ODU=,最终沉淀下来一点痕迹4d0bcb8e06ff057ef8d179236506e86e81bcdeab,就落在了筷子这样的细枝末节之上ITU5ZTczNzcxNDQ1NDk=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGtgGSxuLWi

参考资料:JjU5ZTczNzcxMzI3YTM=

李庆祥:《日本的箸与文化》d265b3f640511268fc50891b6804622e,载《解放军外国语学院学报》KjU5ZTczNzcxM2U5NTU=,2009(5);4f73c5aa72f046afe8c9a352f4f9e98d3211e4e3

沙媛媛、王晓葵:《筷箸与日本文化》MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFljGiyuLmi,载《文化学刊》ITU5ZTczNzcxM2ViZGM=,2015(2);28db783d4bed82bb2006e5266497432c5fae4a11

赵传松:《中国筷箸文化初探——兼与韩国筷子文化比较》MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jZuQtsbegrCVqbFljZ2wy8ei,载《山东商业职业技术学院学报》bca1606e6aa740aa66a1a626b71f2d73574e7422,2016(3);MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjZuQtsbegrCVqbGtgZu9pbWi

蔡秋英:《东亚文化的食文化考察》MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjZuQtsbegrCVqbFljZ-8y6Wi,参见  www.juen.ac.jp/kaken/24531177/rep1sai.pdf#search=%27%E7%AE%B8+%E6%97%A5%E4%B8%AD%E9%9F%93%27 NTllNzM3NzE0NDZhYQ==302a8c90102bbc2c8dbe609eb57c87966b55a395

952ffbdb6306c51b04973ab642acd9f9

END7b8fdbd7932f129be3d8a93199644329ab312a7d

016b15ea43f21ca9b6f6a0cbe173e3e1

 e777570f250409cbce6c6956e9e05058

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jZuQtsbegrCVqbGthKy8y8-i

ITU5ZTczNzcxMzM0ZTA=

 

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