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为什么肯德基麦当劳卖的是土豆条而不是红薯条?

炒红果:#脑洞#明明红薯条也很好吃1da1923faf581113e3a913e9fbe4ae525940e359,为什么我们在快餐店看到的薯条都是土豆做的dfbcad7bdd99072a0dd73338a38825f90230779e,而不是红薯做的?2b324103c09187f5408bc4f05e5f7774d33b3146

7da3cf87d2c85e11389e7aba9ea38ab3

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtq3Rg3p3YbGHnmS82KGi

薯条要蘸麦旋风的值班编辑/马马马69581a546a99559425fa7dd3d22af546

KjVhODkyZjgxNDFiZTU=

f99d20e0906cc518bb0eec6c6501ca3cfb6c42b8

红薯条比不上土豆条的直观原因JDVhODkyZjgxNGE5ODI=QDVhODkyZjgxNDFlNzM=

5d3f71db5eb70e0309ec4ebc72fe2df2

是口感问题MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7djqCZqbKHeGS8zrWiJTVhODkyZjgxNDIwZjE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ3gKuwk7Gi

红薯比土豆含糖量高、油炸爱粘连NWE4OTJmODE0YWFkMQ==,热的时候韧性大、凉了之后硬度高JDVhODkyZjgxNGFjMWM=,甚至往往需要包裹面粉才能炸成型7aed60407216ba9c131ab15b30325bdaMDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ3gKyypcui

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3gK28k6mi

但想想同样不怎么酥脆的美式鸡块MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6fZ2xy72i,我们就能知道QDVhODkyZjgxNGFlYWY=,一种食物流行程度的决定性因素MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6fZ-9zqmiMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3gGSwzr2i

4d887fc7915950aaad4c44c9330ae2cc

肯定不是口感2fe3b06d408ce35c62df8ce13f47cdd74d6d7670858dd023d4863cbe9776d9c3

aedee9d1409eaccd56a3ea6ba64e79fdb62d9eca

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtq3Rg3p3YbGgfK2wyKGi

QDVhODkyZjgxNDJjNjY=

●  也并不难吃的甘梅地瓜条956c664dcde14ef3ad396be7dfa965ba

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3gZ69y8-i

显然MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ6gKqwk7Gi,麦当劳也好、肯德基也好、汉堡王Wendy’s也好1e9fb487b9699a9777a7360db7223a9d,都是美国籍的快餐店MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7djqCZqbKHeGi8zrWiITVhODkyZjgxNDMwMzY=

45e75b54b25caee111e54cc4661165b6

就算在中国市场推出了油条豆浆川香汉堡77f11ce168ffb39c558ef0d1c0fc3318edac80fb,他们设计菜单的时候b784700a132f97dad6afe8db1eaa342c979266f3MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3hKu8zr2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3hKy9zr2i

还是必然会受美国本土饮食的影响e9cf84b554fa66cc7cccfdc8f6cd5c518dc23bcbMDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3hGOxta2i

所以QDVhODkyZjgxNGI2MWY=,在问为什么肯德基、麦当劳只把土豆给炸了时e63d02af5da49dfc47ef4529d9680fed,我们得先看看IzVhODkyZjgxNGI4YTg=,为什么美国人相比红薯条QDVhODkyZjgxNGI5ZjU=,更爱吃土豆条?0a21cef0238890a2a18a1c7daf004e2a921ef32d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ3hGW9pcui

首先是“传统文化”ab05ae518f1381f193d48a8812ab03c8a6da8a69ffb60fd1ae7947a598dbfacd45c28b05

69bb7a3667abcb553e0e17e2f488df661633e61d

土豆和红薯的身世差不多1a5b24cb3e44331c543f4a43f0ddf0b4,这两种原产南美洲的农作物edcdc519e3ed6bb97a64cc18f5f82676,在地理大发现时代NWE4OTJmODE0YmRjOQ==,一起在16世纪被西班牙人带回了欧洲4a69d6eaa93a3512e57e4a41a8cea79e,再一步步推广到全世界2e0e1f8cdde97b88103a0b232713a5424bcdd7348fa7e11bc663ea6826dc2bc90e9f4f09

7491b68f2f964daffc56550aa8b4b553

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ3hZ6wy8-i

1620年356be3a9ff1efef554f031f5fb038cdd,五月花号带着第一批穷困潦倒的清教徒抵达北美新大陆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6hKq8zq2i,这帮人主要来自英国KjVhODkyZjgxNTBmZWY=XjVhODkyZjgxNDNmNWM=

37cba8a19503ba33e499b0f1472b6e5c4a4451a7

后来c44679d974424378fca2b422a95f9ab5183018ad,欧洲移民源源不断地来到北美殖民地JTVhODkyZjgxNGM0NTU=,法国、西班牙、荷兰、爱尔兰人都是移民里的主力军59b84e5033fef29c10db737247c2400714d5de574a8ad62a1fc61e86c3e5cd850637f3d7c03a21d9

KjVhODkyZjgxNDQzMjM=

美国吃炸马铃薯条的习惯JDVhODkyZjgxNGM1OWU=,就是从欧洲传来的JjVhODkyZjgxNTEyOWY=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ3iK2x27Gi

db7dfa38aacd1d0966f008f9af09159f

如今炸土豆条的形状和吃法排列组合一下有几十种c4795afde045ae22867bdc6d8b94e47f,不过不管是英国的炸鱼薯条、德国的大香肠配薯条、还是法国比利时的深炸薯条XjVhODkyZjgxNGM4MzI=42d07b40acf9d0e5334826f2f217f64df0b66cc3

c8d150137586967c4f0aec87f71b7826

最开始都是在穷人里流行起来的d5ca779c967677e10fb2a814b9858a90eddc65e6MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3iGe9qLGi

KjVhODkyZjgxNDRiMzk=

五十年代中国人穷的时候7150bc9f824db5fcfe9ed88b1517aa16,曾经大范围吃水多料少的红薯稀饭度日fd66fd8db49914a091bfee44b2b2a25e59ec8da76ca7cf8b6216b5e0548a1fc0085da709

7abf9538778ff0248cf4bd179049a32236f15cc1

土豆在几百年前的欧洲55251582a1585bcd365287df34ce8554,地位就和红薯稀饭在六十年前的中国差不多MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7djqCZqbKHfGS8y62i9164826823de94d16a5718f7677d4017

6c949e64ffb221425a86d032d83c09a7

世胄人家拒绝土豆f801e9608210c41ed449c40cfc155253,认为《圣经》里没提过这种“野蛮人的食物”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ6hZ2xzrmi,吃了要得麻风病aa978e375d3477b699f591576d0e309c64651d48fd688b206e4bc252684ae8e2

54ffaae9c39f60872d328aca2f3a8637

而且土豆长在地底下XjVhODkyZjgxNGNlYTI=,和高贵挺拔的麦穗不同QDVhODkyZjgxNGNmYmQ=,不配做成面包KjVhODkyZjgxNTE5NmI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3jK28ta2i

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3jGO9y7Gi

但是食物洁癖向来只属于贵族7b6d7a4bebf397a3167773c5484ebc4bb0791953,挣扎在死亡线上的平民百姓可管不了那么多f69cdd4ba4311c264d9994c86517f5cc98b7b534c84a400d77d07d9f3ad166ce6b13860b0316f72b

73d69a37f1630fae992ba2aa4c052369

16世纪末JTVhODkyZjgxNGQyNjM=,土豆传入英国fae0b9bb9780edee82e6e19632863ae00eae84da,并迅速地在英国011e503fdf9bce25334f06fd81fc141b8a3c1fdf,尤其是爱尔兰地区传播开来MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7djqCZqbKHfZywuKmiNWE4OTJmODE0NWExMA==

 208bb8b9ccc7bdce6e64709aecfb0b85116d6a40

到了1650年2b5522dfc143e46dd331358bd79bc0fc,土豆就成了爱尔兰的主要粮食作物MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7djqCZqbKHfZ2x28ei530e117faadcde93070f55f9db8f5b8d8e342d4b

XjVhODkyZjgxNDVlMTI=

最晚在18世纪末70fe16408fb9343d852932d1c0ab6b0bcba38008QDVhODkyZjgxNDVmNjM=

e19ac5dbfd76143a3fcba3baf983865d

炸土豆条已经在欧洲大陆遍地开花IzVhODkyZjgxNTFlZGU=8248072a5acade67320ca6089a1bdb862a311b64

329b35b09ff34bd2c33291cdd4c23e82

68f15f8115c9078a4796204495ef995f

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3kGO9zrGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3kGWxqLWi

●  英国国菜 炸鱼薯条MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3kGa8y6Wi

36ba3f3da3e7c6106a7d9737b3ec4a3febd74794

欧洲当时也有红薯MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6iGewqLGi,为什么穷人只爱吃土豆?NWE4OTJmODE0NmI1ZQ==

c5a330a081466612b403d8fab3fffb25

这就涉及到更本质的问题:MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ3kZ6wqKmi

31c15faff30e01d093d3294a84932bab83e08f83

土豆和红薯的种植条件不一样9933389200f6cab28e5972e4b6f31d927dea090bMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3kaC8y8ei

 7b0317d9bd511bd2258aee4c6ba36071

从适应性上看3ebca12f2d632f0dfa79eaa37ba8343c3e4a0af0,土豆可以完爆红薯7b95fdf36db7e165c706ba4b2aec2627MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3mqyxuLWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtq3Rg3p3YbKthZy9oqGi

土豆春夏秋冬都能种QDVhODkyZjgxNGRiYjM=,三摄氏度以上就能发芽JjVhODkyZjgxNGRkMDU=,两三个月就能收获QDVhODkyZjgxNGRlNTg=,耐寒耐旱f68ac4d55886daefb1ba42ac331db96c820eb997,酸性碱性土壤都能适应ITVhODkyZjgxNGUxMTc=,一般不会绝收NWE4OTJmODE0ZTI3Mw==,堪称救穷人于水火的神器0b20358a3f2d00ee15655292c47c911b495a7dd6f3e40d7826e46abefcd6347f6a257ac101b2d8d8

 d83274899e53eb6a124a9d8609a19469371ecb75

而红薯就要娇气得多1720a538d972c758a96353c0848fef32ff697276,十摄氏度以下不发芽a16d02c5fdfefdf6596347fece09a36cfe9afae5,虽然在南美洲长得好好的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6jGSx28-i,但是移植到北半球以后IzVhODkyZjgxNGU3ZDY=,除了北回归线以南90a402749b4c9c778ed55e2e9f6e15f9d7a3a8e1,其他地方基本只能四月种植十月收获MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6jGiyqLmi,非常不灵活055f87c2ff4cfd97df751be25f266e73a1144105a5b24060488584101103433b166627b44f004ca1

aa08934eae61dcefdae4d24956363b83e7e51cb4

穷人想充饥还得等半年?MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3m5ux28-i

c7a89cc79756e247a0f7b5e63306a74e

人们决定放弃红薯JDVhODkyZjgxNTI1ODA=e59d643e7c4ee393ff4f2a9a3eb63258

 9602fb6b8b3d6d38148512a6447a88c1

一般认为MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ6jZu9tami,美式快餐店里的薯条e8fda8e7da219f114ce54af05b1b0b2ea08d1406,是在一战时期ed9b2d37756019df80f758e173da3a62,美国士兵从法国和比利时习得的饮食习惯的影响下诞生的QDVhODkyZjgxNTI2ZDY=3645150993c3d77cfc991928575bc7ce

 5464eb9e485241241b13f823982b63873578a7d1

不同于欧洲现炸现卖的饮食习惯1257d806cd042144c36413bfa4c0c1e3,热爱速冻和半成品的美国人471ff4d3ba4578cfbd68b8bcfe78606a5839437f,在上世纪六十年代a066c37dc5535a898efa2f35c5353f0267318446,发明了速冻炸薯条QDVhODkyZjgxNTI4Mjc=d1f1e3412de120ab169165cb5ae7ee7e

 74258d20065c8aacc3f81a91ef284b54a7a16e94

如今MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6kK2wpami,十磅一袋的家庭优惠装速冻薯条堆满了美国超市的货架QDVhODkyZjgxNGY1NjE=,而全球美式快餐店的炸薯条JDVhODkyZjgxNGY2YjI=,其实也是由辛普劳等餐饮业巨头预炸后配送的ITVhODkyZjgxNTI5Nzk=4d56e3d38e8a6c388cb017f43bc22b88

XjVhODkyZjgxNDg3ODM=

改良后的薯条消费模式MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ6kGawpami,越发越发具有现代化气息6056359232a88d1fcc421a2620fe8616,和当代生活无比契合MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7djqCZqbKHgGi828uiJDVhODkyZjgxNDg4ZDQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtq3Rg3p3YbN3oqy82KGi

36749c15f787a2321a75415e7faf1e7d21184233

fb7c97ee67ccc0fbb2efc62ef0a07b93

JDVhODkyZjgxNDhlNGY=

●  就是这种粗糙的食物MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7djqCZqbJ3n5-yuLmi

242d3b1582f1c05592b10f1ad83af7cc

种种历史因素的影响下bc11921d468964433091bbb659b0870f,土豆和红薯这一对南美兄弟MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtq3Rg3p3Yb6ggKqwoqGi844d71d0063bf13174f98e7fb99d4fba307a23c4

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7djqCZqbJ3oqyyuK2i

如今国际地位天差地别MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7djqCZqbKHgZywuK2iJTVhODkyZjgxNDk0ZDY=

b058d2f53687c27d0eb9fbc011c3ae8ca378275c

据联合国粮农组织统计bad1389a10dfa3ec7ed945672f89d415,2012年全球的土豆种植面积是红薯的两倍IzVhODkyZjgxNGZlYjI=,总产量是红薯的三倍多MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7djqCZqbKHgZ2xzrmiXjVhODkyZjgxNDk3NzI=

 1ed863583baf5d5cad219cc988f40fd6

土豆收获面积前十位的国家里ITVhODkyZjgxNTAwMDc=,俄罗斯、乌克兰、美国和波兰都榜上有名MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7djqCZqbKHgZ6828-ibe1422b0d94d54983a0113809583d86cd12be917

250f377edbd0c32db8de1fb802558d99

红薯的主产区则是中国、尼日利亚、坦桑利亚、乌干达、印尼、越南、马达加斯加、安哥拉、莫桑比克和巴布亚新几内亚——MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtq3Rg3p3YbOKgGewyKGi

81ddb2a15b16c7aeb31498288c3f94b0d4dc3bd9

一个西方国家都没有55b421df00b58b9e7c423fadaf1062c53e0e308e067d10016d4b5f99398c2191fc05e4ba

 53288c27a251bb83de3751703557267e

所以c93b421a584d08cfe910e7ac95a50108c568c62d,不是说现在爱吃炸土豆条的人还是那么穷0054946ca6a60640d5900932f2f4246e,也不是说红薯不能炸5efbe87df8d58aba7242549dc6bfa7d1552f7edf,或者快餐店们对红薯条有偏见137fc124651af9313bb499c722e6cb352ea1a34c24c16b5e1e515a86635443dd1e1f1d9b

XjVhODkyZjgxNGEzMWI=

只是想改变这个在西方世界根植了几百年的饮食习惯MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7djqCZqbKHeGOxy6mi,难度可能和逼着北方人吃饺子蘸沙茶酱一样困难MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7djqCZqbKHhKu9uK2i8f83a135f414dc5b9e6c978b6d12a1810db88af8

ITVhODkyZjgxNGE1Yjc=

 

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