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人人都知道吸烟有害健康,为啥还会有人卖烟?

河北张家口有钻石、官厅、大境门JjVhOGQyMTAwYmQyM2E=,河南郑州有彩蝶、春雷、芒果6914e5f68cd029ef54f6e787998d8964359e6739,甘肃兰州有刘三姐和海洋XjVhOGQyMTAwYmQ0ZmQ=,陕西西安有好猫和猴王MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2giGSxqLWi,吉林延吉有蝙蝠050ae340d1380a5882160cb30c0b58ef,安徽芜湖有都宝——在中国走南闯北763843e0c7028327fc1c81966e844fabda9c9bd4,几乎能给地域烟写一部纪传体通史32c91571cee87cb4278e9d3d78dc4602ece1d078JTVhOGQyMTAwYWE4MTk=

0e59c08c1f37eb6c10c03e69d42cb50a

● 郑州卷烟厂 彩蝶MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KfGi8y7Wi

为什么中国的卷烟品牌这么多182ae15d4ccf0361c0775b00e7da7d86e27ca9a7,大部分只有本地人见过?为什么不少牌子越来越难买53558093d9e9ffb203763eb6b9dd1b419b33c704,几乎成了中老年烟民口中的江湖传说?MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KfZywzrmi

c1782a73cfcc99de6d1e58324da9ce2d7e2b800e

接下来你将看到:ee6ba0324ae25322b437705fd7a3a31b

93c14a9fc2e3a1a89f90ae847a0fd24face15395

   ● 从民国开始fc999c07eb92b21e7f906c5b9550d870e80ff1ab,烟草就是税收的重要来源f75938e0d70f60012eb3808692c5ff63ac15d339

   ● 每个城市都有自己的专属香烟JTVhOGQyMTAwYWI0OGU=

   ● 为什么很多本地烟又都不见了?MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2KgGSwy7mi

 70abc3d11ab0ed0cdd6734a47fa7aad2ca8d0377

幻想双冰占领便利店的值班编辑/马马马e9a886e5e20c75be563fc9b050065979

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KgZuwzqmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mb2ghKq8yKGi

9d310e7fddbd29f0a320d30d2349d2f54f9343c2

从民国开始JTVhOGQyMTAwYmRlNjM=,烟草就是税收的重要来源23ecb8c50e4624512ad529ee0694e25d

-+-MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KhKqxqKmi

de1d27ab624ffdd4030e8ac9fa46a231c331001c

中国怎么有这么多地域烟?MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KhKy9qL2i

01a5acede47a8871157eca47bc3b6111

首先是因为中国烟民多e6be735452cee047125198066c129d08,烟草上税高JjVhOGQyMTAwYzhiNGM=。而关于抽烟和烟草税的一切a9a9e36e5f2fdaa4e94a50a0e5da4fc134642b63MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KhGSxy7mi

民国才是奠基时代ITVhOGQyMTAwYzhjYjc=IzVhOGQyMTAwYWM3YTA=

NWE4ZDIxMDBhYzkwMg==

我国地大物博dfcdca8f498a84dfba96ece485d56496,吸烟史也是源远流长NWE4ZDIxMDBjOGUyZQ==MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2KhGixqLmi

c9affb41e49c0ffc6382a44f6107e329

自从欧洲人把烟草从南美洲带进中国1ac06b13bb8eac2b71d0ac1f1cdce3ce,从北京到云南、从江浙到陕北dd8aa969ac1b8f75ddfed55ef5d95414ada10bd0,无论士农工商男女老少ITVhOGQyMTAwYmU2N2M=,大家对这种成瘾小叶子爆发了不可抑制的激情MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tn5-ypa2ie88eae75f871c072631ec8e7e8b381cde9ebf94c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KhZ6xpbWi

传统医学家们甚至给“外来户”烟草附会上了排瘴气湿毒的药用价值47d263356275d8aaa3e245a63e2ce6df4f6fef53c668ce588b36550805d1a5cca503b8b2

JTVhOGQyMTAwYWQwZDA=

c9b1be275460e541342e7746d235f0fb

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mb53gGa9oqGi

民国烟画JDVhOGQyMTAwYWQ0ZDg=

921aa390a6e1f6618c300ed1d226597a72c1465f

在人们对吸烟致癌一无所知的民国时期6beef98b115d2c3c495dc7b8fbf40aa1c688211d,我国烟草消费量简直大得惊人:dbd69f5eeef4c8899a1bdc83e5dbebf4

0c95fd1e75939f3252acbffd60932ffb

每年自产烟约一千万担JjVhOGQyMTAwYmU5MjA=,纸烟成品约计三十万担MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2gjGixzr2i,全年消费约一千零九十万担0942acf965cf65abe423e525cac7f08e2d2cf962,按当时4.5亿人口来计算MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2gjZ2wy6mi,人均每年消费烟叶约二斤半562f38e20c655ddebaaa6ea957dda07253ba7e4482860b8c82a1e5aad0b1d8b60b3ba361

04b68bc3d4f7640c673eee78c779b161

换算成百支卷烟92克的国家标准MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2gjZ6xzq2i,这个消费量相当于每人每年抽67.9包烟MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2gjZ-8zrWi,比2017年的全国人均60.7包更烟鬼c208b7d61f8b382afe278429b0903509598ba295MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KiZyypbmi

426ea62ea6e4b91d87d5e9181b040e9d

到了1936 年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2gjaC9zrmi,中国烟草产量高居世界第三0e7e77b26338aeb84e156f42496f96b7,仅次于美国和印度3074964a99c89a48e6851e3d922c5a8fe64c68cae077176a8c394455185e719165dceaea

e6712146eeb5cc9af8c40cc4e266004587cbb2d3

占当时世界总产量50亿磅的10%f14856aff0d3c381dc3357e911e293da3128ed4b0cb25383dbddaa2ba323ec32

NWE4ZDIxMDBhZTMwMQ==

1936到1946年87f2d695348fc296fadddc4017b5bcd7,中国深陷战乱泥潭中28afc5730f081ebfccc9f47a93715018,烟草业却“一派欣欣向荣”MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mr6dkGixyKGi,1946年全国烟草总产量1300万市担MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2gkGa9zrWi,是1936年的2.4倍7bb41488a327af952e9d2157914d8ad2MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mb6HhGSx2KGi

IzVhOGQyMTAwYWU1OTU=

体量巨大的烟草消费市场给政府带来了丰厚的税收MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0m7OHkGaxsqGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2KjGS9tami

3fb80d9985ee5857948cf6b7d7ff5a0d

所以无论是北洋政府还是国民党政府88395fcadc876ecf7bddd9831be1b355,为了增加财政收入8222ba139888ba2ba2a00f75f0a397e8ab555df8,都成立过烟草专卖局MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2gkZy9zrGi,对烟草商品实行MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KjGexk7Gi

3e780b4207de925d398e4493ddb526a0

政府垄断0fce97c98b1e8b0bece280fedd198c8f97d9decbabcbfd8d012e617df391e6fe60434f46

74bdd148003be9a7fe7a0b6ac1339c94ddf8513d

国民党政府执政期间颁布的《烟草公卖暂行条例》afa0031086313442b0fd15c3b60e93d1,不光是我国首部专业的烟草专卖法规2883536fc576ddaa2a9c83338a9a3ed3,它“政府定价、内部监管、持证经营”这一基本原则cd078cafab2e206d9b5053afcbaf18839483618fMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mb6KiZ2wsqGi

QDVhOGQyMTAwYWYwMDc=

延续到2017年也依然适用MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tome9zrmiJDVhOGQyMTAwYWYxNGI=

QDVhOGQyMTAwYWYyOGY=

f2c021549701d2c018d80c373c02b33219214fd3

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mb6diK2wyKGi

7eab9166c3ee4bdce2a6c8c37858beb6

1929年 烟草贩卖执照MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mb6dkZ6xsqGi

JjVhOGQyMTAwYWY5MWQ=

民国时期d88ac86de7ecb422222ff060703952edcb9341d8,中国的烟草税虽然受制于不平等条约和战争KjVhOGQyMTAwYzAzY2E=,难免收得青黄不接2f1c97a5ef999e4432d5d71567cdf917,但依然在政府收入中占据很大的比重MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2to5uxpcuiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KkGixy8ui

IzVhOGQyMTAwYWZiYjU=

自1942年实行专卖制度后MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2teGSxy6Wi,当年中央就征得烟税近1亿元NWE4ZDIxMDBjMDdiMw==,第二年达到10亿元9087a428b5d58ec8dabdd66c24636416,第三年更是有19亿元之多MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0m7OKgGiwsqGifa95a227a657b76c428cadcc3fbf6e13

4876c042b21ebbe36d1d08eb51d863040f5d7cb9

不单民国是这样JjVhOGQyMTAwYzBhMzY=,现在我国财政收入也很MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2KkZ-8uKmi

XjVhOGQyMTAwYjAwZTc=

依赖烟草业MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2to529pamiff48ed43cc970bbc00d832fba7c4a0debbaaaf58

ITVhOGQyMTAwYjAzODI=

目前中国有3亿多烟民0bccb26f0189dbdefa7cf0570c6e0d2a,年卷烟消费量17000多亿支959519f195e0c29c5ee90b970291005836f80816,卷烟消费需求占国内生产总值的2.8%左右NWE4ZDIxMDBjOWYxMA==MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2deK28k72i

dab005e7c2c6000da6bbb8b8ca58384877ac7dd9

2010年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2teZ6wqLmi,中国烟草业年净利1177 亿4d63999d112edd4e06746783d08794ff12f8c729,平均每天赚3.2亿4655619817d629b71f728fc4ee46644bc493ba0a,利润和中石油差不多JDVhOGQyMTAwY2EwNTc=。烟草带来的税收也是高得反常识JjVhOGQyMTAwYzEyMjU=,它几乎占到了fce91b0fefe6cb25ddfa33138d64024521facd2b

QDVhOGQyMTAwYjA4YTk=

国家总税收的10%MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL1lfKq8tcuiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2deGe9y7Wi

4064f51a0f51049e764452bf2a7b6e5983c65105

8918dffc78189c53939822121501d051ec1dfdf3

5cc080f7953ffc37a745f44b708407699b963a02

XjVhOGQyMTAwYjBmMDc=

● 2006-2015国内卷烟产量f61c0c91ae6e75ee2f30c9ee5e9d05ec

IzVhOGQyMTAwYjExYjU=

现在我们已经知道了烟草税是块大肥肉e5ebb8321c485ab2e0c289365b344a97,可它是如何导致地域烟泛滥的呢?MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mrGHgKq9sqGi

NWE4ZDIxMDBiMTQ4MA==

这涉及到一个至关重要的问题——我国的烟草税收QDVhOGQyMTAwYzE1MGY=,到底是怎么分配的?2f82cbad5b90c215815d0ff2596f9e0b

b8af9c724378cdb213ac49e59ed2160281aaefd9

6c768953cec02345df2ff81627fba136e4cdcb25

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2dfGe9tcei

每个城市都有自己的专属香烟b97e7223e6f34420fa928cb0933fdbd4df04aeec

-+-MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dfZy8uLmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dfZ6wpaWi

1982年JjVhOGQyMTAwYzE2ODU=,中国烟草总公司正式成立14f1a1046f39321238447fae4c20b55f6b02aced39dc95a54d0532cc05c7dd058d720b14

XjVhOGQyMTAwYjIwYjM=

这位“总公司”和电力石油那些普通央企不一样22e624aec451ed3ff9669e92bfba42f1,不归国资委管理36867bd790e8420fbb7b9fd2843af7d8,甚至是中国所有垄断机构里MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2tfGi8tbWi,唯一既公开商业经营576f6c7bdf8d103b0f1b926ecfce3782,又公开行政执法的机构MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6FqbTdgYpzqL1lfK2xtcuiNWE4ZDIxMDBiMjIxOA==

a113d419320c01e064c046bf0c22deb7c6655ccd

从烟叶收购、卷烟生产到销售定价1eda9696a88df43cfc4ed4aac73a2a48f94d97cd,都由中国烟草总公司管控5aae0a521652a193fa5a5df1d74b1f73e310e9d432c162678f2f5e6813699d85dbb2f8e4

339af08707d1a43234acc05a60c83fd39570b719

1991年eac66023a1f98efb9d20b629487032e1,《中国人民共和国烟草专卖法》颁布MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tfaCwk7Wi,更是从立法层面036a2c42282323eb5f305918dd071e95MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dgGWx262i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2dgGa9paWi

确定了烟草业的国家垄断地位JDVhOGQyMTAwY2E3MGM=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dgGiwzr2i

391a2327e3f198e2a53c8965b21315b44ee0e483

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dgZy828ei

d09d5fb2bf06ddd2cafc443156dd5ade

21c8447c36ac9532a279b00b00318f64215a9983

● 中国烟草总公司4401c198917014df2bd05664a73c14b9

350824dad51e16b5f6afad848367988b

卷烟的税收构成相当复杂d6665e46eb399b946860ad2cca848fbe,包含了烟叶税、企业所得税、消费税、城建税、增值税等等ff849f8f462798dabdf6477ec336cecb4199bfdcda1a3235dd5858fdd8e77f8a360cda0c

NWE4ZDIxMDBiMzQ3NQ==

依照我国现有税制来算1af7b62bc3333805d2988acff950f8a7,你在街上买一包烟JTVhOGQyMTAwYzI2MDY=,有55%的钱都交了税211dc1274855f103139ac584532990ffMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mrGtiZ2ysqGi

2f991e7980e00a2a037eb77eeeeb1861

其中25%的增值税、烟叶税和全部的城建税、地方企业所得税归属于地方税收6b7ac045dcf0aa1d94dafe00a8bebf92,75%的增值税、消费税和中央企业所得税都归于中央税收IzVhOGQyMTAwY2FiMjA=b38c4240540c1dd725d3f06a3d331df2

NWE4ZDIxMDBiMzljNg==

长期以来171e06861c883a984761e2f3342ab034f538eb2e,烟草税的甜头主要是中央来尝MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2tgGiwuL2i,1994年税制改革以后NWE4ZDIxMDBjMmI5YQ==,只要是生产卷烟的地方c803aa685fabac59c76f1a6c2c4725858b9833d9,就会有一笔颇丰的烟草税收cb8a0a2b82b1d0d6c8460bc11533a36dXjVhOGQyMTAwYjNiMGE=

KjVhOGQyMTAwYjNjNWQ=

这就导致了无论本地市场有多小a63070d8e020ffb7fd3c9acca7f84a85,烟厂的生产技术有多糟糕MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tgZ-8zrGi,政府都会拼命保护地域烟草品牌MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2thKqwzqmi,并且用种种办法阻挠大型烟草企业和外地商品进入本地市场MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL1lfZ2827GiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dhZ28uLWi

QDVhOGQyMTAwYjNlZTc=

于是国家烟草专卖制度在操作层面上af4780ad104a917c0ea71cb1129c8f32cd9c4478,越来越像c57e4058b80cfe0f7ea1060b1f609084

ITVhOGQyMTAwYjQxNzg=

地方烟草保护制度IzVhOGQyMTAwY2FmMWI=0939efc73b88d92df26271f939c33d87f4f5164a

a2ab8231ef74a75ad7b9b1defbb1202a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2diGOxk6mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2diGS8k7mi

839d3d81829f34cfb0b444aa018e8f95

● 看起来相当原始的小型烟厂c707cd0fb0edf97c02c81fa78192a7df

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2diGi9pa2i

八九十年代3c9b512adf1eef7c0b55aadd5a991783,在大部分地级市8a392c1907b0c4a5632f1b2a7e7dde1d7ceb9d9f,本省甚至本市烟的市场份额都超过了七成JTVhOGQyMTAwYzM2Y2Y=,一些稀奇古怪的烟草品牌IzVhOGQyMTAwYzM4Mzk=,揣在家里长辈的裤袋里MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2thGeyqLGi,成为许多80、90后童年回忆里不可分割的一部分MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL1lfaCxzrGiIzVhOGQyMTAwYjRjMzQ=

2fb7340dad815346d47f627f4a5f2fa4

九十年代中期JTVhOGQyMTAwYzNhZmM=,中国烟厂多达185家MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2thZyxtaWi,其中有95家的年产量低于10万箱8d6266789b5b2787dee7d0bbcdbb20f15b9106848382a8a7e4d257023ef21525cb8305d34dd3d16b

IzVhOGQyMTAwYjUwMzM=

90年代末dcc577b9eb0c4b8d9fd7791da93fc5c7baacbe5b,我国已经有了超过2000种卷烟品牌75f82b79eb6a3ff07cbb6a6ecfefef0f50b74f8b,平均每个品牌的单规格产量低于2万箱72ea2349c1004b16d92957c2568b7f87,相当一部分品牌的辐射范围aebf67ff6436648cbf009e52d2ccbb42

KjVhOGQyMTAwYjUyZTU=

基本从未离开过本市KjVhOGQyMTAwY2IzMjA=KjVhOGQyMTAwYjU0NDE=

795c63c9265cbfb5b29eb112388690015b711bf5

JDVhOGQyMTAwYjU2ZjU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2djGaxpbmi

7c2f13e3b9736ed6fa1b07187d4f2b4d9a72196f

● 大境门卷烟23b1c422cdc58e373f0c41eb94796384

47b8668695ec300f800271456d49107d0eb03221

由于烟厂技术不过关ITVhOGQyMTAwYzQxZWI=,小品牌卷烟的焦油量都很高JTVhOGQyMTAwYzQzNjA=,过滤嘴也不大好用ee32385ab47a2e2c1e975fa0bdaa6515,如果没有本地保护a4c226b657c379e5906fbffdf05a4374252f02a3,在大型烟厂的挤压下根本活不过三秒MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0m72dhGa8sqGiXjVhOGQyMTAwYjVkNmE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2djZ68y72i

不过ITVhOGQyMTAwYzQ3ODc=,品牌又多又杂带来的最大问题e11ebd4e523c60251194a072aedd64bd4ade0b99f4e4257d9714bb52a0aa99e65a304320

d599b2641b03976385d47e82b51b9cff

其实是健康MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0m72diZ-woqGiJjVhOGQyMTAwYjYyZTQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2dkK2w27Wi

虽然抽烟本来就像英美烟草公司外壳上的警示语“smoking kills”所说的一样a1c831e33926b639b75d45c7e789a1de,是种致死性爱好2c6547fd16758a0fb333dfe9843cacdd,但是非要比较的话ITVhOGQyMTAwYzRkMzM=,低焦油、混合烟、大厂烟XjVhOGQyMTAwYzRlYTM=,给人身体带来的危害还稍微小一些6714713361d09b6b42d8b5dd0dc0dee6ITVhOGQyMTAwYjY1OTk=

c5144bd6c08487ecb118b6928b9b6baa

而地域小品牌就不一样XjVhOGQyMTAwY2I4OTM=KjVhOGQyMTAwYjY4NTY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dkGe8tcei

比如山东过去有种写作“将军”读作“taishan”的烤烟73e0bc66acbfda2b6afa0bb97c1856a5e5684ad5,口感刚劲有力ITVhOGQyMTAwYzUxNmE=,除了冲肺醒脑02062978fd7b3413566a19e7e6e5baf70f3b5bb9,一无是处KjVhOGQyMTAwY2I5ZTY=19f6e41fd63b2cd5551a17b52c468561

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dkZyxy6mi

导致山东老乡们一直觉得世界上的过滤嘴烟除了外形娘炮点之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tjK2wy8ui,都和旱烟没啥区别MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL1lgZuw272iQDVhOGQyMTAwYjZkZDg=

d08606620a8e65403b519d97ad52fd7660cacb55

fd7b88bfab9af6921fcda6292b95adf3

0c554d65e0d1011980711b77c4ac3bb7feec4f52

28511205c2b72da5f12a7ce17e778cd10aabfb07

为什么很多本地烟又都不见了?bc15b7eeccfe19bca94331f8a4634c97

-+-5bc677bdde342ec46c38fa4d5a17fb4e

4779e7b81b0142f8b7be495eb869c5147c9a4cf5

2001年对于中国烟草业来说5b2a27de3bc690b1f4bae6a2f9eac2fef66b3e625854b6749cc97d0bb2299711

96af17e6a9d905cd3e5af167ac1c8a89

是一个难以忘怀的年份512c589d7b3984327066424e37448bfe838dd104MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dm5u8uLGi

XjVhOGQyMTAwYjdkMTM=

这一年f0904838fff8e4b4423233caafde6773,中国加入WTO03e3823b0efb10dbfbfdbc872cd368f5。同样是这一年MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2tjGaxzrWi,世界三大烟草巨头菲利普·莫里斯公司、英美烟草公司和日本烟草公司的产量分别是1800万箱、1650万箱和900万箱f36ee4081d4bc6c220dc867a948e9841MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dm56xy7Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2dm5-8262i

年产量不足十万箱的本地烟草公司对战跨国大魔头QDVhOGQyMTAwYzU5ZTg=,市场占有率不足2%的红塔山对战在美国市场占有率超过35%的万宝路c6073da1a0fe320d23f322b91563b78d,这显然是要把烟草业拉进ba5bdc752d0a919e29f75fdb6872742e76d69c21

JjVhOGQyMTAwYjgyOTI=

死亡竞技场JjVhOGQyMTAwY2MwYjA=200f75de0e8ee8689f6ca0d8dc4b85eefe091f42

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dnmOxpami

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2dnmSyuL2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2dnmW9y7mi

QDVhOGQyMTAwYjg5NGI=

● 菲利普·莫里斯公司正在考虑淘汰卷烟198cd2db51fdfd3bec96cda22123dad2

 ITVhOGQyMTAwYjhiZjk=

还好我们还有国家扶持MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL1lhKuwpami。尽力拖慢万宝路们开辟中国市场速度的同时JDVhOGQyMTAwYzVjYmY=55686f6f3ca9f2fb43e6b34a1b5435b4

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2dn56yuLWi

国家开始推动烟厂并购重组事业MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL1lhKyxtbWi8d22e77e0e21f0eef73f0a129364fc5e

JTVhOGQyMTAwYjkxNDc=

2001年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tjZ6wtbWi,国家加大了对看起来比较有存活希望的“优势品牌”的扶持6332f31b1e1f6db09cb7bcfad3d55ecc,并公布了中华、玉溪、利群、云烟、芙蓉王等36个名优卷烟品牌;ab642b54f280b936f7ad981cc57e78440601c979

JTVhOGQyMTAwYjkzZGY=

2004 年初3eacaf0bafe2797fc4aceee3c6e95f0bf869f9cc,中央开始催促非名优卷烟品牌退出市场;MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2domOwzq2i

9f3fd2bfbfffaeda8e44927772dbf72d

2004年8月ITVhOGQyMTAwYzYyNGQ=,《卷烟产品百牌号目录》出台MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tkKy8taWi,收录了121个卷烟品牌5f96533a5560dfe8ce96abc917aa96060542c7d596b2857e3924adad20a55f413bfce7dafb0e8c4b

a322cda378a362ecef2285a488c2bb77

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2domiypbWi

2f992913c05e9cccb7e7945856eb9e641e5bdf75

ccf41212bcbe34ca7b53e154e7c88c2c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2do568tbGi

e3d98259c53c0f6c0506a89aaab531d2a5896d06

一系列行政文件通过后45d5d4b81cc85a8179c69cdaa6909769,我国卷烟品牌的数量逐年减少MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tkGSxy72i,2001年到2008年8a1a9e6f3703b2ecdafa2616dfb8505b,卷烟品牌从1049个减少到155个;d08dc76f21a8db17b4e632eaa4b4479e

JjVhOGQyMTAwYmEyYzk=

品牌集中度略有上升60221251de8e89a233694ed9335892b6ee1f16ec,销售量最高的品牌集中度由 2.52%上升到 5.47%326ed019a801e7f522be0b7624c7c48c,排在前四名的品牌MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2tkZywpami,集中度由7.89%上升到 19.31%NWE4ZDIxMDBjYzYzMQ==72c7546cdb5667a0d134dd14bc3dfdf1

ITVhOGQyMTAwYmE1N2E=

与此同时0cc44853171efbf9a10df6bd0da4e7a9,烟厂数量也在减少MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tkZ69pbmi,2003年全国有123家烟厂JDVhOGQyMTAwY2M3ODQ=。到2008年还活着的4c2b6073996da736e19c9d63c516b8cae5ee44fc1a8b53553bb0d82078f993236340d2f53a3825e0

99b56d9d57bc2e86aefffc4984dcb43b

已经只剩31家bdbd8aee102cccbdcc7d730a3d25a93bda9adb6f5c6b63fb41032bfacaafe4fa96540a8f

9693664ab8cc0128ac8adeb0a32da22e

曾经能养活一大家子人的XX烟厂4281b82e5ccf5cf895664d259fc28ea6d9124c57,纷纷或者倒闭c99bac7a589ccd721ccf35719a3c7bcd5ec49e34,或者被兼并QDVhOGQyMTAwYzc0OWM=,或者几家之间联合重组MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL1lhGiwk7Gi677ea38df5d03e052883afe8eedb11929bb7ac24

c3dbcf1571f4fdd021b9b7f07acd603b

它们曾经的生产额度1c1d097bf6264316cea8fe9e2964282d0e203503,也都被更大的跨省烟厂拿去生产了自己的优势产品b5f67af28daee369cbe9d11ee8dbcd7c0953204938980cd077a6d1e803a4c9bd003df66caa2ff14c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2gfaCxpc-i

575abd0ee2a3d24f608b257c70cc6f73

NWE4ZDIxMDBiYjMxMw==

576b222bee019d6f4077f548e024030ba160610f

● 利群5e4aca7b58cac9ad246f8eda87e56f3ebae7504e

e28d4fc4f529d32e665b59d2fddc78fdb20861bc

利群就是通过这种方式做大的一个很典型的卷烟品牌MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tmmWxtcei,浙江中烟工业扩张越快9b80c0fcf89345f93b31509c7177d09bdb000884,市面上的利群就越多704ffbc9dd44d03e13ad4b9e0d311bb42df988ac,最终浙江中烟带着利群走出杭州MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0m7JlfGixoqGi,走出浙江MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2tm5y9y72i,走向了全中国0fcbc2864bc5c590323a4b72e96d701da1b6768826d45ca320a9f32c4245487ae4a5e3a4

JTVhOGQyMTAwYmI5ZjI=

而现在中国烟草业面临的几大基本矛盾c1e04c96d0777e766106b254d6f0f36b061fc88b,是国烟品牌不够强和外烟走私屡禁不止的矛盾、烟草税收高和高度垄断不利于国烟做强的矛盾以及最根本的MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2tm5-9qLmi,烟民加重医疗系统负担和催促全民戒烟难的矛盾76d326ad2fc570c319828cdfbda37a2cf8fc9333081c3d8c5b237a42d222a945

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2ggZyyuKmi

随着现代医学发展529c66f29e61089404f7653179647f62,“吸烟有害健康”的宣传早已深入人心9ce29d9fb308b8d2a9a3145fc85bfeadf1884c97MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqQpqzcgXp0mr2ghaC9yKGi

77c2fbd1d40022d53018bfb5d992becf87cbd916

然而59ed39db25225418c247b8e04d7ebe2faf6f7a5d,2015年1fc43acbbc637cdfad2a3bd28d65adfa,中国戒烟联盟的统计数据显示c182827b1505483a0580004ad3fc6c01MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2ggaC8k7Gi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6FqbTdgYpzqL2ghKuwy72i

我国有46%的男医生正在吸烟IzVhOGQyMTAwY2QwZjM=ITVhOGQyMTAwYmMzODY=

f0f750cf664e27c4551a3ab31e19bdb8

这个数据只比一般人群中的52.1%3751770167cc51d79322276c6e3337c545b243dd,略低一点点ITVhOGQyMTAwY2QyNDU=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2ghGSwy8ei

0cd0143e06d91770687e2e5be2d8568fa9a1ca76

0f07794282157ced3fd0dd4f4680f437

JjVhOGQyMTAwYmNhMmY=

610f3935dfaedb0c98280d81192f39868e3dfce9

00f9fe5487d757793994a4f5a2574b465753ab03

吸烟有害健康KjVhOGQyMTAwYzg4NjM=,戒烟可减少对健康的危害69d37835c1c739536f00d36f5d7294737e402dd6586d5f69d40dced36aa348ad5b60c89b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2ghZ-xk6mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6FqbTdgYpzqL2ghaC9pbmi

 

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