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人人都知道吸烟有害健康,为啥还会有人卖烟?

河北张家口有钻石、官厅、大境门83ccee4b6dd20d5f84948991afda7e697895cc2c,河南郑州有彩蝶、春雷、芒果c89074eed744367fa063145f47a186faa800dc91,甘肃兰州有刘三姐和海洋888a3a64924de9ea8e656fe6456918759a5112b3,陕西西安有好猫和猴王MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6HiKy8k62i,吉林延吉有蝙蝠IzVhMzU0OWMyZTQ0ZTQ=,安徽芜湖有都宝——在中国走南闯北MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6HiGSwy8ei,几乎能给地域烟写一部纪传体通史495b44ad7e57d18609a6f7110da8a4ccf8c7c36fQDVhMzU0OWMyZDJiMmQ=

8f0673e3a821743a6bdf6e2f84efdaa7e5d18b48

● 郑州卷烟厂 彩蝶7dd978785db7f036ac329128820395ce

为什么中国的卷烟品牌这么多b328b2e4ae4207021bac7f30b6ff293bb9217789,大部分只有本地人见过?为什么不少牌子越来越难买1a1ea9a7e39edb1120d99799e604b86e,几乎成了中老年烟民口中的江湖传说?fa5fd1400f333d8cd22a39e67dfb5d9feae74aa2

bde6924f489a6bbdb4a22bc0d70b70ac

接下来你将看到:XjVhMzU0OWMyZDMxN2E=

JDVhMzU0OWMyZDMyYzI=

   ● 从民国开始a7b4e97dba0b82b15f9e83517f773b92471ed1ba,烟草就是税收的重要来源2ec576a6bc9f7d0930d1399494111443

   ● 每个城市都有自己的专属香烟251fc4dcef11ec9506fcb1c0c77d0cb7d2bdfd51

   ● 为什么很多本地烟又都不见了?ITVhMzU0OWMyZDM2NTI=

 cfc7933fd7e03abd98e95e88687a4308653acbd7

幻想双冰占领便利店的值班编辑/马马马MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr53hGa9qL2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiUg41_qr53hGiwy72i

188f6ce1994391a476d7f60b34adb080de50f4c4

c57ada56dd7bc37b8792f06676107f0c47205cdc

从民国开始MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HiGi9qLGi,烟草就是税收的重要来源b406694dce49f11a9cb06ef62611bc7728ae0a2c

-+-KjVhMzU0OWMyZDNmMTg=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nLFlkGaxoqGi

中国怎么有这么多地域烟?21768f5c3df8939b8c800c09611d9770

JDVhMzU0OWMyZDQzMjk=

首先是因为中国烟民多MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HiZywtbmi,烟草上税高ec08ef4b4978c9f9b25c619dc85e6bbcdb217423。而关于抽烟和烟草税的一切MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HiZ2w28-i00d423d63f2d58a84eb87e85885f60d5790fc913

民国才是奠基时代553f027882e45f1016c53e701feb851f81eb7769MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr53iGO8tc-i

IzVhMzU0OWMyZDQ3MWM=

我国地大物博MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6HiZ6xuLGi,吸烟史也是源远流长JjVhMzU0OWMyZWVlYzI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr53iGaxy7Wi

870b0e671055dcc3139926826fae271f1eea0e98

自从欧洲人把烟草从南美洲带进中国MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr6HiZ-ytbWi,从北京到云南、从江浙到陕北MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6HiaC8k7Gi,无论士农工商男女老少f819ae29d749c325b7cb426a4b2656bf39ac5c0a,大家对这种成瘾小叶子爆发了不可抑制的激情7cc5cff282a02b915cc572e838243f634ffbf6d7IzVhMzU0OWMyZDRiNDY=

c434eab01e8daf10b573e72a00dd65f4

传统医学家们甚至给“外来户”烟草附会上了排瘴气湿毒的药用价值IzVhMzU0OWMyZWYxYTM=f46efcd6cdba01e6e57c910b3e602266

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr53iZ-xpaWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr53iaCypcei

b97dd68bd82ea65fe22b2a1a60f45291

民国烟画MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr53jKywy7Wi

f868b6449324e93e0a30f1b133c0f3fa219290d0

在人们对吸烟致癌一无所知的民国时期ea53fc47b2bcb333a0da9e7223964b5f,我国烟草消费量简直大得惊人:1b0def98fbacb4b44fca244c843c8f10e7070472

77f4cc425e20b9fe33d6a1bb94341962

每年自产烟约一千万担KjVhMzU0OWMyZTU0MmI=,纸烟成品约计三十万担049d886a66d5a4dcdbe0cf8a029fe15a,全年消费约一千零九十万担4bb4b9486524cd10eacaf204dc898d1d,按当时4.5亿人口来计算3b811714fe147666c8545b8e58a1f002993e6df4,人均每年消费烟叶约二斤半81d26dbd32e9fefa975d48ad93315b54e73c91419132243b9cc900b89b6b0032

ITVhMzU0OWMyZDU5YmU=

换算成百支卷烟92克的国家标准c569dc77966bdde0179b0b6eebdc4d309d58c032,这个消费量相当于每人每年抽67.9包烟bab0b9aaf7a9f548d0917df3a47d86e6,比2017年的全国人均60.7包更烟鬼NWEzNTQ5YzJlZjQ3NA==c2cf4763aff350a73df80b49da1bea6de8c63652

5b769b3e86de986f32d5557c7e848efe56776337

到了1936 年5f3344fd4c508e45c246e0d0ff81028715a8065d,中国烟草产量高居世界第三MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HjZyxpbWi,仅次于美国和印度d92a62494866c77eb7d59866dbd8569fd7ea92e5MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nLKKhZ6wyKGi

3574e16b9f258a0d4549a1b61134ba33

占当时世界总产量50亿磅的10%1b2e5595dc85b0bd998e41b613fbab37923e01d9MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr53jaC8uK2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr53kKq9y72i

1936到1946年340fedcef11103a6e541b2c04be2df72,中国深陷战乱泥潭中83122b84936c2d6eb528a32b162542d8,烟草业却“一派欣欣向荣”MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HjaC9y6Wi,1946年全国烟草总产量1300万市担JjVhMzU0OWMyZTYyNjg=,是1936年的2.4倍838b96f896eaeb5273e992ebceac57342004cf24MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr53kKyxpcui

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr53kK29pb2i

体量巨大的烟草消费市场给政府带来了丰厚的税收d7b2eea604a2989d882c22d96ea64c8f682d2ff0448482536acec4fe7ad0c1c3a35f9a3dcd584b46

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr53kGWxuKmi

所以无论是北洋政府还是国民党政府MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HkKy8y7Wi,为了增加财政收入8199d0a714a6433c1dae9cb74a63ced8,都成立过烟草专卖局QDVhMzU0OWMyZTY2NzQ=,对烟草商品实行56cb09397848a39f81439f8d71b67e505a587129

QDVhMzU0OWMyZDY5YTM=

政府垄断513e8f4f19f5a1035d1a976ec10988f77b6aea18bab9794a22e04c8b0971ce694a29e771

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nLKggGOxyKGi

国民党政府执政期间颁布的《烟草公卖暂行条例》MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbKdkZ682KGi,不光是我国首部专业的烟草专卖法规1aea34f2b1f94c504f4caaf14c09ac79,它“政府定价、内部监管、持证经营”这一基本原则QDVhMzU0OWMyZTZhNWI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr53kZ2yta2i

IzVhMzU0OWMyZDZmMDc=

延续到2017年也依然适用MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KkZuxpa2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiUg41_qr53kaCxtaWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr53mqqytb2i

f4da2081af41186722c2e1ade0e646e5

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr53mq2w28ei

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr53mmOytbmi

1929年 烟草贩卖执照34e47f7e0a722d27526d997fb953a8318a2a4d99

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr53mmaw26mi

民国时期MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr6HkZuyuLmi,中国的烟草税虽然受制于不平等条约和战争b718e672e1a39c8decc8b1720f51e3583a71f082,难免收得青黄不接KjVhMzU0OWMyZTZkZDQ=,但依然在政府收入中占据很大的比重65595e3fef7d1ee94c00532ee8b588adJDVhMzU0OWMyZDc5OTE=

6d62fa8655b98438fd3b7daf93e59c4865a382b4

自1942年实行专卖制度后IzVhMzU0OWMyZTZmMDU=,当年中央就征得烟税近1亿元MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HkaCxqKmi,第二年达到10亿元5de7c5d62592484a20a2a1c9f6355b39,第三年更是有19亿元之多671cd405db10e5763b7896951eb9abc05683d88c143e77faa42ee097f7b3a8a01ce8573a

ITVhMzU0OWMyZDdkZmI=

不单民国是这样MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6Hmqu8zrmi,现在我国财政收入也很0c9cf93bfea0ef9deffee73456dc6577574e74d1

f831f4ca58f1a542d7f69724858c7227

依赖烟草业7e761668f1eadec3cb9a3711059793efXjVhMzU0OWMyZDgyMjc=

JjVhMzU0OWMyZDgzNzc=

目前中国有3亿多烟民QDVhMzU0OWMyZTczZjQ=,年卷烟消费量17000多亿支MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbKtiGOxyKGi,卷烟消费需求占国内生产总值的2.8%左右XjVhMzU0OWMyZjAwZGU=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr53nq28zr2i

NWEzNTQ5YzJkODY0Mg==

2010年6b022ac428449b9f6e3ff997b7d7f3c3,中国烟草业年净利1177 亿4ff0abf9ab88749720e47080b288cf51,平均每天赚3.2亿MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6Hmma8y8-i,利润和中石油差不多QDVhMzU0OWMyZjAyNDM=。烟草带来的税收也是高得反常识MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr6Hmme9pcei,它几乎占到了876000d69bb7f72285c81692ca586f9a

dde68695089b6e42c0d027abeea54d3ffbf4a04e

国家总税收的10%XjVhMzU0OWMyZjAzODM=19c9711ce4a3e3aa3fbefb49cb484c85491d3d47

07d15fd73ee7d5e289c5e7be51e74047

45d20d6c57b27198760447c4acc7ceb0

ITVhMzU0OWMyZDhlNjk=

JjVhMzU0OWMyZDhmYTQ=

● 2006-2015国内卷烟产量JTVhMzU0OWMyZDkwZGQ=

c1b0a27962642e0d28ca7cdc00fff3ee

现在我们已经知道了烟草税是块大肥肉KjVhMzU0OWMyZTdhZDI=,可它是如何导致地域烟泛滥的呢?c7ff3dff5c21b0851fe16776bd60c50f3ba9a033

ITVhMzU0OWMyZDk0YTM=

这涉及到一个至关重要的问题——我国的烟草税收IzVhMzU0OWMyZTdiZjA=,到底是怎么分配的?c15e8bd9816f104687e52c357b1874a437c1cf99

QDVhMzU0OWMyZDk3NzI=

a70ac8a7b78fca3678727c41b8743558b05df75a

f8aea97a10f9e290f09527614ecec67649082976

每个城市都有自己的专属香烟628d3e6274da4cbfcd5577aadfae0b64

-+-025bbe25635f211dccf670007adb3efd

f368a38e6dc5cbd2a83873ec804547a4

1982年4ba5fde07ff1ea5b87d29a5e0a811c2a,中国烟草总公司正式成立f1eadeb54135dcc79dd9b9caceebaf67db7954b20bff89e0b5907bf2bf67fc7735de1554bbc6ca9c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr53o6Cw28ui

这位“总公司”和电力石油那些普通央企不一样KjVhMzU0OWMyZTdlMzQ=,不归国资委管理JjVhMzU0OWMyZTdmNTE=,甚至是中国所有垄断机构里f551437279ee08a8b7a69a6d608a27b2,唯一既公开商业经营MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6Hnqq827mi,又公开行政执法的机构XjVhMzU0OWMyZjA2N2I=d450400205ab1b2685178a11023dac53

bbb61aace2f2ea421a5c97fb3a4650e4

从烟叶收购、卷烟生产到销售定价d6a84b2704d4b9a925c218ef9b7ad4179f55cc73,都由中国烟草总公司管控4c0d26b30378323431d1336aaf576bd0e6eb1c621530981438491a773cb24c77f76f350745dbfd0f

83d37e4a0f68655025e0bdc7baad1220

1991年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr6Hnq2wy8ei,《中国人民共和国烟草专卖法》颁布MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HnmOytcui,更是从立法层面MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HnmS9uKmiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr56fGSx26Wi

b1268c60ff783143d964f254b7a0f069

确定了烟草业的国家垄断地位bb3ffc183b6c2379a205d1f5a7a2f19ba8c68debMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr56fGa9y7mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56fGixuLmi

0032cc4a96855886c1f773a944d86f1bc9de439f

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr56fZy9pc-i

134de1873ca7f2e65b925df812bf25c481850177

● 中国烟草总公司48036fd186d5168539d598163a348b255282cd42

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr56faCx26mi

卷烟的税收构成相当复杂1499e4f56c5bf06f901c77fb18f84f3d41ae9039,包含了烟叶税、企业所得税、消费税、城建税、增值税等等2ed9bbd62c29a3ab2289ce1f1080930d17c1cd5aIzVhMzU0OWMyZGIxYWQ=

IzVhMzU0OWMyZGIyZTM=

依照我国现有税制来算IzVhMzU0OWMyZTg5NzU=,你在街上买一包烟XjVhMzU0OWMyZThhYjA=,有55%的钱都交了税3a26545c74de1e921e4f42c11b9ba47c466507d0IzVhMzU0OWMyZGI0MmI=

5166431578715bd908c3268b91386e82

其中25%的增值税、烟叶税和全部的城建税、地方企业所得税归属于地方税收MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbN6gKqxoqGi,75%的增值税、消费税和中央企业所得税都归于中央税收MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6deZ2xtcuif53de0a476006820f5f391068454925cb4c88c74

a65fabd37cd7c26b06f6f98d9dd1c2f2

长期以来MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbN6hGiwyKGi,烟草税的甜头主要是中央来尝d848bccd92e46fb89ed88b7390088e27ff29f96b,1994年税制改革以后JDVhMzU0OWMyZThmZWU=,只要是生产卷烟的地方MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr6Hoqqw272i,就会有一笔颇丰的烟草税收XjVhMzU0OWMyZjBlODg=451890ba054cdef3197bb558b43f744d

XjVhMzU0OWMyZGJhN2E=

这就导致了无论本地市场有多小7f9ee9b0076ffc0c0dd66f5788e807f2,烟厂的生产技术有多糟糕MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6Hoqy9taWi,政府都会拼命保护地域烟草品牌aed6031ad893284a60f0fa612c6a45afe7d9e05b,并且用种种办法阻挠大型烟草企业和外地商品进入本地市场MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6deZ-8k7miJDVhMzU0OWMyZGJiYWQ=

JjVhMzU0OWMyZGJkMDE=

于是国家烟草专卖制度在操作层面上MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbOHkKu8yKGi,越来越像MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr56gZ6xqKmi

KjVhMzU0OWMyZGJmOTM=

地方烟草保护制度MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6deaC9uK2i939c6438ba99e8869e40a1c722f2b3ea

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr56hKuwy7Wi

ef2f6152a54ac4c5c2c9a61b3ae9dafeb9d239ac

d218448158fa6d622a37a228cf58a68004673dc1

b7cf705ce91f8c9cfc8540067451f533ea9be92c

● 看起来相当原始的小型烟厂MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56hGWw272i

409dd90b394d26184238b8c7db1fc2eb

八九十年代JTVhMzU0OWMyZTk4N2Y=,在大部分地级市26937a10148f68ec58a086781ad8514947c5a78f,本省甚至本市烟的市场份额都超过了七成MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr6Ho5uwpami,一些稀奇古怪的烟草品牌JTVhMzU0OWMyZTljNjA=,揣在家里长辈的裤袋里IzVhMzU0OWMyZTlkYmQ=,成为许多80、90后童年回忆里不可分割的一部分7d6dd4dcc5bf4e6647122520e180f3650130273cMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56hGe9tami

dc7249c1a86094c7677b0fe48679617b

九十年代中期6ac2ba1a242f9cb1725df5d7c4fe9f05,中国烟厂多达185家eb447ae859da849ccbba000ef03aac3a,其中有95家的年产量低于10万箱9381572a82011f840cb4e87cc5bb48ca11f2fcdfMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nL1lgGawsqGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr56hZ28tb2i

90年代末MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KfKq9uLWi,我国已经有了超过2000种卷烟品牌f7bd9c70b376688ab4127adc01fec0dc,平均每个品牌的单规格产量低于2万箱MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6KfK28y72i,相当一部分品牌的辐射范围08a7da68555591ca4b10d391bf0c2b8776de830e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr56haCwpc-i

基本从未离开过本市a2920c2b7114b0635164c91e2b8ceec9dad651dc90ca12cff30650852b71ee99

f65084b80c0ab699e886deb7b76b2c5a773b9868

531a3d710329fb884ba1064102dd727363e2e345

JTVhMzU0OWMyZGQ0YjE=

8399fc5a35a78e85c7d9c562a8feb107

● 大境门卷烟47b935d9b3a937f29d8ec2437bfe7ce0

KjVhMzU0OWMyZGQ4NGY=

由于烟厂技术不过关MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr6KfGO9zrWi,小品牌卷烟的焦油量都很高f10aac02cd1707ebb2a4f39ae0053ad4,过滤嘴也不大好用1eeff387296ea6876b1ee0291986e233,如果没有本地保护XjVhMzU0OWMyZWFhMTg=,在大型烟厂的挤压下根本活不过三秒JDVhMzU0OWMyZjE2NDY=JDVhMzU0OWMyZGQ5N2Q=

38b0ece177103296fadc02353ba56142

不过dec9f664f1d635bd9caafa6293d626af,品牌又多又杂带来的最大问题234f7fcdd569027fa557bfa24513ba1ef8d35d55MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56iZu9y6Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56iZ2wy62i

其实是健康f01b1df8a0cfd6d07b5d7b1db434ed05JTVhMzU0OWMyZGRlNGQ=

IzVhMzU0OWMyZGRmOGY=

虽然抽烟本来就像英美烟草公司外壳上的警示语“smoking kills”所说的一样MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6KfZ6wqLGi,是种致死性爱好IzVhMzU0OWMyZWFmNjA=,但是非要比较的话MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr6KfaC8tcui,低焦油、混合烟、大厂烟f0df16485c7f8fe1b84fdb6bd488009720715e12,给人身体带来的危害还稍微小一些ITVhMzU0OWMyZjE5MDE=5d02559c8102f4fc21f92e6aa329f2708accd7d8

573b88f3d7f14014fc27316c2d8123b5

而地域小品牌就不一样MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr6dfGixpcei5f453d52760e5e07d64377967ff65ff6

783b9c294507b7196624b2724623dd0b

比如山东过去有种写作“将军”读作“taishan”的烤烟IzVhMzU0OWMyZWIzMjE=,口感刚劲有力JTVhMzU0OWMyZWI0NzY=,除了冲肺醒脑JTVhMzU0OWMyZWI1ZDA=,一无是处JDVhMzU0OWMyZjFiNzY=d9f45a76f758d980d840f5353524621c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56jGS9pami

导致山东老乡们一直觉得世界上的过滤嘴烟除了外形娘炮点之外cecaf6389fdfb03e8b8bbac74e664cd2d0f16d81,都和旱烟没啥区别55bada86d7a6bc89155c6e15ed6ce7daIzVhMzU0OWMyZGU3ZWI=

QDVhMzU0OWMyZGU5MTc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56jGixuLGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiUg41_qr56jZuypc-i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56jZy8y72i

为什么很多本地烟又都不见了?XjVhMzU0OWMyZGVkZTQ=

-+-MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56jZ-wy8-i

0913425626f6db05d3fffc5dcbf6fb6c20c9c8b0

2001年对于中国烟草业来说e456376cbf3abab4b7f58669a458806a381e629046769916774a6391bac3272ecdb512fd

7f3197db66afbb80ec734a6dacddb9c1

是一个难以忘怀的年份9e8df4cfd2e0d37b3497c018f2bf00e6c692462a56ddd7ea7d466ea69060048b70f7d555

XjVhMzU0OWMyZGY0ZjU=

这一年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KgGe8uL2i,中国加入WTOMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr6dfZ-xy8-i。同样是这一年MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KgZuwuL2i,世界三大烟草巨头菲利普·莫里斯公司、英美烟草公司和日本烟草公司的产量分别是1800万箱、1650万箱和900万箱JDVhMzU0OWMyZjIwOWE=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr56kGSwk6mi

1ff48bd57320ae22970dd2e0699710ba5d8b325c

年产量不足十万箱的本地烟草公司对战跨国大魔头b17e744985f469b25f49b2b5bbf67edd,市场占有率不足2%的红塔山对战在美国市场占有率超过35%的万宝路d53a3b8859d0385ab3902c5523194d355520a3e9,这显然是要把烟草业拉进e9fc39ca79ab21ba62aa36ca1dc59df8

16d2784d8cde9ff9d14acf062ad39a44

死亡竞技场176f89b8dc52c56f544b8babf7985330f79569d74ca98b308e586d05b84136f7b6584fe4

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr56kZyxtbGi

c373d2cf3e50944facae1732dbbe3eae48e57e28

32fc181bd77df627e713ce28dc54d381cd35c15a

87d9e601c1b1113552c93f65c255916ef55f357b

● 菲利普·莫里斯公司正在考虑淘汰卷烟c2b4f5fc9955bed4fd8b902a2f90e5a4c88e439d

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbF3fGaxyKGi

还好我们还有国家扶持9e99cd1e27ac05dc631df15717d20da1。尽力拖慢万宝路们开辟中国市场速度的同时c68d8de288500d46de103f70c6c2de806a3b26438ca5404de81064afe093cde9730d42cf

39a64f6696ef754ca058d8e1e31fac953485fb06

国家开始推动烟厂并购重组事业QDVhMzU0OWMyZjI0ZWE=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HeGSwtbmi

36bf7d03266b714a0d4704e3d31acb41

2001年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KgaCypb2i,国家加大了对看起来比较有存活希望的“优势品牌”的扶持MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KhKq8k7Wi,并公布了中华、玉溪、利群、云烟、芙蓉王等36个名优卷烟品牌;536314af2cb329f902387833471105c8

JDVhMzU0OWMyZTA5OTg=

2004 年初32d504013b8b2b86f93b1ef1ed898f6a,中央开始催促非名优卷烟品牌退出市场;JjVhMzU0OWMyZTBhZDM=

3022e5ead4aaaeeffd93ff2710b20a37

2004年8月MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KhK2x272i,《卷烟产品百牌号目录》出台71aa2b136f7e49a21561a5b856afd8831e635ba9,收录了121个卷烟品牌a0e318551720301f6bf0471da0243c86c364bbc1NWEzNTQ5YzJlMGQ0Ng==

e75514085be726a17f6481c6545ca90c

52f01fe15f489d03cf1178a148d69b4239cefa2d

687f8e9d0b6a46979bac8487cdb56cf5fccc2dcd

QDVhMzU0OWMyZTEyMTE=

QDVhMzU0OWMyZTEzM2E=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbGHhGe9yKGi

一系列行政文件通过后KjVhMzU0OWMyZWM3NGQ=,我国卷烟品牌的数量逐年减少06c4ea3231386cad8ef2a67e27dbf23d88138aff,2001年到2008年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KhGe9uK2i,卷烟品牌从1049个减少到155个;JjVhMzU0OWMyZTE1OWQ=

QDVhMzU0OWMyZTE2ZDE=

品牌集中度略有上升b2be1cbadd8ed5387f9145881b35d65b,销售量最高的品牌集中度由 2.52%上升到 5.47%eea8c0df91bc327ea205377ad6cebc266dc16acc,排在前四名的品牌MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6D3LiUg41_qr6KhZ6xpc-i,集中度由7.89%上升到 19.31%QDVhMzU0OWMyZjI3Yjg=ITVhMzU0OWMyZTE3Zjk=

JjVhMzU0OWMyZTE5MjA=

与此同时0223d1d84d7a615986c75800610452a4,烟厂数量也在减少MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KiKqwqLWi,2003年全国有123家烟厂5ff80749975fd69d81ee8bb952861549。到2008年还活着的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6KiKux27WiJTVhMzU0OWMyZTFhNWI=

332326815f18a8f8109cd8d5ee517f6a

已经只剩31家7fc0775f3128df71e55efa4a5ad20b528462025aNWEzNTQ5YzJlMWNkMg==

f378165141f70e804c337d57f439aadf

曾经能养活一大家子人的XX烟厂MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nb53gZ-9yKGi,纷纷或者倒闭b06554dbf4ea5a26f422e8c9f41a4bb9,或者被兼并KjVhMzU0OWMyZWQ2ZDk=,或者几家之间联合重组8669a5736bbf1a7c6d4d0b337532c31af4970f0f5b06c2d2167f4b01760f8004f9b6afa7a9f8179c

b62fd9347bd4e7bb1712fa705c4a282c

它们曾经的生产额度KjVhMzU0OWMyZWQ4MTk=,也都被更大的跨省烟厂拿去生产了自己的优势产品a42ad6cb010e2b5dc79f61f2aa45d613cdaa9e70MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HgKq8tb2i

3241641bf97bec821b4a07574cc1036991a42b94

7e2e740f250bfc79c9aa2cd53958d2dd6d764d3f

ca3afb0df2fe207f8000c808534c797f9fef640d

ITVhMzU0OWMyZTI2NjI=

● 利群5679b53e28a9563e66638689ca604d3e84c7b5c1

0521b14744414b84565484034186f9a5

利群就是通过这种方式做大的一个很典型的卷烟品牌0019e19d9017c6f4042c40a9d7e43c6b,浙江中烟工业扩张越快3d2b6f31b370306fa59ae5145c4cd7b9b0e84958,市面上的利群就越多KjVhMzU0OWMyZWRjMDk=,最终浙江中烟带着利群走出杭州6d7a94b0ca0a6e83297453fd6a6df560,走出浙江MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KiZ68zqmi,走向了全中国KjVhMzU0OWMyZjJlMzc=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HgGe9tc-i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6D3LiUg41_qr6HgZuwqLWi

而现在中国烟草业面临的几大基本矛盾XjVhMzU0OWMyZWUwMDg=,是国烟品牌不够强和外烟走私屡禁不止的矛盾、烟草税收高和高度垄断不利于国烟做强的矛盾以及最根本的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KjKqxta2i,烟民加重医疗系统负担和催促全民戒烟难的矛盾0f12027f294981bf9267bedb7d52007d3a26f7be3391bb6087857e2684cff59d1c93b42a21ed87ac

a88a12d7541918c46e7e0443f03d1b4e

随着现代医学发展IzVhMzU0OWMyZWUyYzQ=,“吸烟有害健康”的宣传早已深入人心52e301668f96ea5c58d68e1ed2152f23f255ff6bJjVhMzU0OWMyZTJlNTQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HgZ-ytb2i

然而QDVhMzU0OWMyZWU0MDM=,2015年4635a781195946ded90a870d642bb081,中国戒烟联盟的统计数据显示MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr6KjGS8tc-if369e39cd9a050ff3d2db2f13dbcbb36d9a27b42

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HhKq9qKmi

我国有46%的男医生正在吸烟MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6D3LiUg41_qr6dhKuwqKmi125b1148e4a983205749891c67382835

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HhK2wuLmi

这个数据只比一般人群中的52.1%QDVhMzU0OWMyZWU4MjU=,略低一点点7b9f6e21d62df2b54fede8b386d93b38f1fa5480MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HhGOxpa2i

ed9b11c8a2b95c103add8b5f24390616

c7c6f3d2bd730668e724f3f5f429ce5b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HhGa9taWi

779680145ef1c3d2d025ad171e9fd17e980caab6

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6D3LiUg41_qr6HhZuxy8ui

吸烟有害健康2f3bbdbfdc467a1e23f8cc58dc5afb3986351aa7,戒烟可减少对健康的危害72e5b16deb86e9ddad5326eb11ddd3ed13369b12c2f881d12264e0f9c6f04648114eaae6

IzVhMzU0OWMyZTNkOGM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfeCEtrSZjbB8nbFliZ-woqGi

 

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