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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

XjVhZTBmYmZmYmI3NTE=

JTVhZTBmYmZmYmI4YWY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2ggGe9zrWi

如今我们日常接触到的MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqb3NjqOMm7J3fGWxsqGi,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计44620654906176c314007175e2f59959bd0d1cda16c3d0e4c4a0ef228b3753e664a52975

78e5d17456ef829d9d4169fb3c905cbe

除此之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tiKy9pbWi,现在的温度计6d547cb6d4fa59c39526de3792a88615f1f49e06,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等37c792a5f36cd08fb5664ec866428156,非常多的种类MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqb3NjqOMm7N6jZ2xoqGiae153cde9de0da2022fb98a32d07969e

e1aa9634f6af9e8ae57ead94dfe71ef8f25f30f7

66a0142c79f570b7a15f0f2dc2015923

JjVhZTBmYmZmYmMyNzI=

● 半导体温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2ghKy826Wi

cc6344f5b8afd13c2523b171362eadff

不过7fe6c13c8e186afa1e5720b2dadfdf57857a5900,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂c9ff4ca1690a51d766af7d292aadbf84faf7bb0ff009277805c523ba4d24303fe57417d366e3acce

QDVhZTBmYmZmYmM3Zjk=

1624年f4c97add17c49ca8b5c83ad257928684,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tiGiypcei2ac1ee85700fab21c19636c9c94707a802830601

74e68fc63b78e808127da503f02a7b99

最早出现了“温度计”这个词c99363672dbfbec2d17abf4a767af1af29b2faaae27c5885f49453d804b47505

4e0bf332e4de006d4adf21ccef990c2a

不过2eb46147a18cd109be64e92a4d0d55fd87940e6a,史学家通常把温度计的发明eb9000a3c1357c415b18d08b8101bc7bb1aff657,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略5c609e85b2e7d0ce0ff104ad4bf7f2912ae39a9bJDVhZTBmYmZmYmNlYzU=

JjVhZTBmYmZmYmQwMjA=

56eef53e6031744ebe6865563d58fe61

495c1dbe26c15b419083918bc546d491

JTVhZTBmYmZmYmQ0NTM=

● 伽利略4f1476591973f53dd2164bc1af633dc2

XjVhZTBmYmZmYmQ3MWU=

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRjaOMnr2tiZ6xy7Gi,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器1b9ac7f7966fc4c6a0951c3c5873fe83

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRjaOMnr2giGe827Gi

玻璃管一端开口583c1509a1211e00edacd7332dab8c7e5f5e9c04,一端是玻璃泡MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tjKqwtaWi,把开口的一端插进水里c2ea8698546b45c405d5889f25abb331,加热上方玻璃泡KjVhZTBmYmZmYzUzZDI=,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tomOyta2i0420ecb523d93bc93b8819fc6e22670e88257ba8

6e27fbb3fbc60a6645a2b9872d590db1df0c8819

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度f5195e95ff69bfc2f63d7da4a4fdb9d6,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中ITVhZTBmYmZmYzU2N2Q=,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tomWwpaWi09b71dba262c65770925061c5c3111962e9f9365

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25c9e968d826ffbdbc5210dc02d8bec5

XjVhZTBmYmZmYmUxZDk=

● 伽利略温度计XjVhZTBmYmZmYmUzMmU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqb3NjqOMmr6HhGex2KGi

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tjGW8k6mi7285a414147666bb0be7a6a1ff5c921da27a929c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2gjGWw26Wi

依靠空气的热胀冷缩MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRjaOMnr2tomaxy8-iMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2gjGaypbmi

ec56b473aec29e7a84cfd8b9b424d4cb17acd3ce

不过这种温度计不会太精确cc001256b64ca9c47c31e239c439e4ce,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRjaOMnr2tjGi8taWi,还受大气压强影响ae1aca2a1c0136c3fa29d3a0ac7025fbMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2gjZuwk7Gi

7191c1beefd5c9a9f6ca7f27aecc8608

于是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tjZywqLmi,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计IzVhZTBmYmZmYzliNjE=7eda4aa2b72cdf5e787cf42730037480

1650年2852cf2419b85c456b68f41ed091e4e7,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们a8982256fb301083133b71884bd1493140c26168,把伽利略的装置开口封死769d4dd095c6af51a8eef56036145331a468860b,上下倒置KjVhZTBmYmZmYzYxY2E=,管内放入着色酒精6343a9878befc3488a2cbc88df5c0a94bc6c802d,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度be1e4c121a3beb630dc045ae62e21cdfMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2gjZ-xtcei

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tkK2ypbmi,再均匀分割刻度IzVhZTBmYmZmYzllNTE=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2gjaC8uLWi

dc954f61e778e28f6ea73ba9afdc7391

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了16e07157662525baf6138fb722982927cb5e188bc5a9a0c6fe78df3ec055da999cb55c6885e2d6a5

2efc49248838d0a3d6f6e289eb473102

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqb3NjqOMmr6djKywyKGi

3e956dae47547eb26f06ad818322962a

JDVhZTBmYmZmYmY4ZWE=

e5789daaf110925e4723d26d42653a6e

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)3aa59d0eba1f7ade63f1c7b5d4885602

2aaeff312a747e53f57116a9d845ac14

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时28f0467b932821fef4b91e5d0806d016,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计0b4d0328f9c133a5d5e0f2252c13e0cbQDVhZTBmYmZmYmZlN2M=

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计JTVhZTBmYmZmYzY3YjI=,很迅速地传播到了中国db61ef729c6e3f74bbd09be010e96984MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRjaOMnr2gkZ-828-i

NWFlMGZiZmZjMDEzOQ==

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——701372a9470501ed704f4e8c3c3bb8526ea63a15

XjVhZTBmYmZmYzAzZTg=

欧洲传教士MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRjaOMnr1lfKy9uLWib4a70adaf0f766fbc97dfdc15f174dc20425b90e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2teGSyqLGi

最早向中国介绍温度计的d7a9bdf549e5cc26238b1dab41fe4e12,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRjaOMnr1lfGOxtbWiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2teGaw27Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2teGe8uLGi

ddaa2a03d0aa673027269a2d2469eea2

8f39fa45b102cc28f217537a26f9c72d3f4c51bf

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2teZ6xpa2i

2e0ec9a8fad77c70c3c1740406a7f78f

● 南怀仁MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tfKqxpbmi

4dffa87a004be7472f081f9a1170db9b1f1c8be8

顺治十六年(1659年)IzVhZTBmYmZmYzZhOTA=,南怀仁来华MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tkZu9ta2i,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监XjVhZTBmYmZmYzZkNjE=,后升任工部右侍郎76de4495fbbbe7e7adbd5a055c9e084f1629d2f6JDVhZTBmYmZmYzE0Nzg=

康熙九年ITVhZTBmYmZmYzZlYzc=,也就是1670年cf03edb6f104c5a469a25d6235eaf45b,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计QDVhZTBmYmZmYzcxOTY=,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》c510d751ebdc95595df5f2a93dd1eb27e8d35d17XjVhZTBmYmZmYzE1ZmM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tfGWxta2i

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管9793fc99851fcc57c7962a1445848a84d7b90bc4,球内空气热胀冷缩时fee212491e7d8da54ecf4aa89d7b1feb,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tmmO9uL2i,U形管一共有十个刻度JDVhZTBmYmZmY2E5Y2M=81fba2480e689a8f426c9d90de1cee0675b27a72

JTVhZTBmYmZmYzFhN2M=

和伽利略温度计一样KjVhZTBmYmZmYzc3NzM=,这种空气温度计并不精确IzVhZTBmYmZmYzc4ZTc=,但是对于当时的中国人来说JTVhZTBmYmZmYzdhNWE=,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了3e86ce891613e1b236e3e7fafe8a4891a6ebcecfaa1e8e8e5d5559d4abe42de0883598ea

2c76082156216b7aba0c17ae83568a784268f175

0669004433ea3155562b9d39f009cefc491e6b76

a6d7bb6392711fbc057999e2df3b05270a54c953

8cef77b15d276dafe0287a7822e7b591987918f5

XjVhZTBmYmZmYzIzOTk=

● 南怀仁制作的温度计NWFlMGZiZmZjMjUyOQ==

十年后IzVhZTBmYmZmYzdiYzM=,更精确的法国原装进口温度计2979398952d29547aaa916405256d7d4,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRjaOMnr1lfZyypbWi5f67c81feadb66a0e92983f444e77fcf28fd6685

JDVhZTBmYmZmYzI4MjY=

1689年康熙南巡IzVhZTBmYmZmYzdlYTk=,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tm5-9zq2i,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家49b093ba55c4ed66047d2434658206be837eb270献上西洋方物12种NWFlMGZiZmZjYWUyMg==4e64d9b873583b61dae17983ca771189

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里9dbdc0ee87fa65c9aff2716c8d9f2b89cea5e264867b08eb1f13109e3f9acd37

IzVhZTBmYmZmYzJjNzk=

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种1b565ba68d6fe189713cf35abc063dd1,余物退回JDVhZTBmYmZmY2FmOGQ=2a34dcff190b2b9b44c59a0a8c0e0e35

NWFlMGZiZmZjMmY0OA==

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管QDVhZTBmYmZmYzg1YmY=,万岁爷要收下62deb7bc5fa67252cd5ba823d823295da03a1bcc,奈途次难带0129edcf51cb03099620b4915a1c3f4b4b5bc723,先生往后遇便送至京师”2092314d59ec3b78af3109d3691284b8205f1484MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2tgaCytb2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2thKq9y62i

45417c4aba154421f77350973f0ffbc38dccfe09

5a0827a199f7f812f378c10ffa4f6ae3eb5496d4

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRjaOMnr2thGSwzrWi

cd3c4a88d4080ec414757d291432cd05

1690年2月JTVhZTBmYmZmYzg5ZmU=,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿159d3440fbcb73902c88ab8bf1bf8aa4QDVhZTBmYmZmYzM4ZTM=

6889465a2a0978a411869af3bc75866d8c30030e

成为康熙的日常爱用品7b749e25ae0794c12fb8da94dffc6cc466409ad82804bccce69c113c2ef8897f2e55e514

edfb1c62aecd71b2da7ca2a13664b68f

至于它们在民间的普及6102ab68c3969ac5a462d3de646c9c2e,则是二十世纪以后的事情了48f6e02b7c61a265323791859d0f49a327ac285c5dcb7660c0631f14b94e14a5bb9c074a

8b4843fbf59cee4b9bedb7a659e2f082

5527fc91fc1d4c89583264364bd3b9e1

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