× 拖拽链接特品特惠到浏览器书签栏 或 按键盘CTRL+D把特品特惠放入收藏夹,折扣信息早知道!【不再提醒】

当前位置:首页 >原创分享 > 其他分类 > 正文

可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

0d96f89a8f34d2195fb8d99c3e8058e3

ea85d6880b472a2cd85e96eca0e66d12

JDVhNjMzNzg4MzQ1YzU=

如今我们日常接触到的1c1b9d698b84d6d34da687e35841b200,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6EzLDegrCZZbJ3eZ-xtcuiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtiGWwtaWi

63e2629d283aa77b3f8df1e4d3d7a55b

除此之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq72tjaC9oqGi,现在的温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6EzLDegrCZZbFlhGaxzq2i,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等f9e4b3cde57fad50fec859e027beba3b9225d8c5,非常多的种类ddcf6248064a12b3130e0d9d28a289a998da14e3872486dd723fa42bb22850ec8ec91f34

7b7be8216ee29d628b9d26981acff1ca15726cfc

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtiZyxpb2i

bec4727f0da4260d490df4e29d5da4f5717a03e0

● 半导体温度计85b74abee2886931eb4395a84ce9a26c28aac534

a87fef5d792699f415fcd7f937903a43

不过8d0655f92be703f1ace3909a01ea7698d5f21846,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂b553d14a6f37b220963fe7e398ce0b8154876b7e4a31c7fab8046850e8496ac908cdfcf3e0ddd826

4bf469c8859b8d0d689ad83e8bc0e94c101b7969

1624年MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq71lgGO82KGi,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlhZ2yqLWib29ecea2ac6f96bccd78a53cb5e6094ab8661a8a

b9e4b4d45f042fb50fec590c6f1b414b

最早出现了“温度计”这个词MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbJ3fKywzr2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtjGSxtbGi

JDVhNjMzNzg4MzU3OTM=

不过3f5c07f7f46b0a305aea1ec6734e2cfe9c1c165b,史学家通常把温度计的发明MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlhaCwqKmi,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略QDVhNjMzNzg4NDE0OGI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq7KHm5-ysqGi

3dac492677e009691aea95dd5948603f

118b54bfa160339c0f91838e3a16a2f3

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzLDegrCZZbGtjZyytbWi

a95f940c0ef62589c221d484a579c1d8083808d2

● 伽利略3dbd5d7b3472397e3791fd8562801027d8c6a9f4

JDVhNjMzNzg4MzYwNzE=

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录KjVhNjMzNzg4M2QxNDU=,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq7KdeZ2xoqGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtkKywpbmi

玻璃管一端开口XjVhNjMzNzg4M2QyODM=,一端是玻璃泡MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzLDegrCZZbFliKy8k7mi,把开口的一端插进水里68256eb954f505163990e5986a29001a78fdc28c,加热上方玻璃泡48308fc0ab03556889065d22b793b448,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升99e12a98f1d2dcd401b3b4c781f0b255ffee3f1fdff93ef7f063155bdeee501cbc7a30c5

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtkGOyuLWi

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度XjVhNjMzNzg4M2Q3ZWE=,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中a6859b269a4264187bd6626ebc8620e6,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzLDegrCZZbJ3fGWwy7WiXjVhNjMzNzg4MzY2ZTQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq7KdmmOwyKGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtkGexy62i

867653a40634a0995c25f672b80e3eaa

● 伽利略温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq7KgfZ-yoqGi

ad7ea7907fda47ed64386dc62a598a45c23c5726

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbFliGi8y72iMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6EzLDegrCZZbGtkZ6xzr2i

c2161bac2e936fd4ce361d2e861cfa78

依靠空气的热胀冷缩JTVhNjMzNzg4NDE4NjI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtkaC9zrWi

cef4f4cbeeb1d077d6cb0fe8b703bb74

不过这种温度计不会太精确4eb31af13a92ba8c863478886ab8b6b0,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响6ef393931d40897b59060d11042bc051c7288787,还受大气压强影响4602a3f9e4122dbb0048c01230000c5a7781c215666674fe7dfa29d45b514813350449c9

KjVhNjMzNzg4Mzc0ZGY=

于是87bcfd77f7a58067338d32bd5da77cf705fed98f,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计ce704c76231ae3c5ad015cc2d6da2767KjVhNjMzNzg4Mzc2MjA=

1650年7bbb39912178e13f4d8917e6efcfa1b4555d25e1,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们KjVhNjMzNzg4M2UxYzk=,把伽利略的装置开口封死MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzLDegrCZZbFljKywuLGi,上下倒置130c57fdd599913864b2f001deaf5a2e8e2a0f1b,管内放入着色酒精MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbFljGO9tbWi,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度ITVhNjMzNzg4NDFjMjc=7716dcec139ba003c692ebe0f8ba80c39cd85e67

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbFljGWxy7mi,再均匀分割刻度85a4c3e64b94e1e0758a1980faa5662f09a3e63634a4bcddc7b15a95c15a95e6c2b19c7c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzLDegrCZZbGtmme9qL2i

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbJ3fZ68zrGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtm5uwuLGi

251902224290a48e57e558890408d5bf33f26cd2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtm528uLWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtm569uKmi

18507664980b14ea281a9fb1aa92b3f4aa17155c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtnqqx26Wi

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtnqu8uLmi

JTVhNjMzNzg4MzgzZTk=

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时NWE2MzM3ODgzZTkwMw==,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计KjVhNjMzNzg4NDFmZjE=db0d576d137b65461d8b6da4b676a69dbf0d2fa1

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计0ecc4f501e5b92f4ffeda36b38bee9feae64a7e1,很迅速地传播到了中国04abcd3753b3e048a86912336aa6cd80IzVhNjMzNzg4Mzg2Njc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtnmW8y62i

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtnma9y7mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtnmixy7mi

欧洲传教士JTVhNjMzNzg4NDIyODE=a60d1e93752d610db169ed24a2d2a597

JTVhNjMzNzg4MzhkNDM=

最早向中国介绍温度计的KjVhNjMzNzg4M2ViZDI=,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁JjVhNjMzNzg4NDIzYzE=711b684591046619411a4ef840d39ef1

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzLDegrCZZbGtn6CwpaWi

a1fe5c0c3b75329d06900d8ba3292003f04ff2fc

JTVhNjMzNzg4MzkyZTg=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6EzLDegrCZZbGtoq2wk62i

7deeb20f17b3fdff8eaf583eec9f2c7cdd629ff0

● 南怀仁12e2e6742c9d65e00ae79bf49c1038ba

8f87a35022039fa3abb5d4de80b6f90a

顺治十六年(1659年)17b619661eacf76a1a9d637d7a297710,南怀仁来华c67fc20261fa854dcf5b15ad01f7de76,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzLDegrCZZbFljZ-9y72i,后升任工部右侍郎MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzLDegrCZZbJ3gK29qLmi5db8d45a4408053517c96e2f31030ec939e5d5e5

康熙九年085d1af66e4f7e3dc929c30b2542ebe0,也就是1670年bc4801eca2abd249b19d92f6cce28efe,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlkK2wy8-i,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》JTVhNjMzNzg4NDI2NTg=0a0fbf9f26765f4870334fd2ae287d0342418224

NWE2MzM3ODgzOWNiYg==

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管ed546bbb24b16b70057954fb5ae4ad6e,球内空气热胀冷缩时KjVhNjMzNzg4M2Y3MTg=,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降9106a0eff2b7d04c392271254877415d,U形管一共有十个刻度f5c9d068214888e0eb19df664d9f11c6b6f22225dc7a2d4671c682166b2c5ebfc33c3934

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzLDegrCZZbGto5-ypaWi

和伽利略温度计一样1928771bb368645be4d13efafa9c8226,这种空气温度计并不精确MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq76gfGSw2KGi,但是对于当时的中国人来说QDVhNjMzNzg4M2ZjZDM=,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZYbGdnqy8yKGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbGto6C9ta2i

b492af4c86a866413cc4c83df042b1402bee8462

0cf393a6560b3eb2fee007b86f112130

JTVhNjMzNzg4M2E1MWM=

9625eb4aa99d0ab1ea3db3e04136deae0ff6c802

2de0034a655fb4abc4147df45097931ff0af6291

● 南怀仁制作的温度计QDVhNjMzNzg4M2E5Njg=

十年后MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlkZ6wy72i,更精确的法国原装进口温度计806cece806b4c8da8430092ab9dfc87b9a9a5244,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbJ3gGiytaWie402ff4c7863016fc5cfebc6764bf000

5c89a4df9ec0a0d638d11ef05a6c548fb033f009

1689年康熙南巡4c98abce418189364fb1bccca2cf356d46b16ebb,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫752b7b470dabecaa0d179b1edbcca6432b0e777c,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家XjVhNjMzNzg4NDAzZTA=献上西洋方物12种MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzLDegrCZZbJ3gZu9y7mifc627f0084051514436a0d0a0dd571500792201b

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里XjVhNjMzNzg4NDA1Mzk=JjVhNjMzNzg4M2FmMzY=

071500b8b9c79626eae78343622fa7c5

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种443fbe418f3f44020eaf31971c3afb9dddb713e4,余物退回0afa17d74531b8fcfb2a7852901dd90835bdff89NWE2MzM3ODgzYjIxYg==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlgKyxzrmi

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管KjVhNjMzNzg4NDA3Yjg=,万岁爷要收下6acdc5072b5c4916674e4593bdee8262,奈途次难带bfecf335f7609cd3cd106be6eb34bc0ffb7a5c5b,先生往后遇便送至京师”MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6EzLDegrCZZbJ3gZ6828uidc3dca344e1f0205ad09f5e9fb72636f

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlgGSw262i

ITVhNjMzNzg4M2I3OGE=

27a53a77175739e6bda0fcc8fa03845a

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlgGiwtb2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq72gfGS9oqGi

1690年2月1606fb7abc615c38cf17e362e308035b,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6EzLDegrCZZbJ3eZy8k7Giefa89f93915a082538dee8b2d252ff10

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzLDegrCZZbFlgZ29tb2i

成为康熙的日常爱用品JjVhNjMzNzg4NDMwM2I=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzLDegrCZZbFlgZ-wy7mi

QDVhNjMzNzg4M2MwNjk=

至于它们在民间的普及b74a45db10064baa20177fc1c7d7eafcb7c4ecd6,则是二十世纪以后的事情了XjVhNjMzNzg4NDMxYTc=60d0661f9ebcd6720b812c263824833dc1f4e3cf

cb4e2bf62f39477ae6b5d550d513e23f445ce3c0

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiD3LCXg3qZq72thGO9sqGi

 

0

 

收藏

 

评论

分享

上一篇:鱼肝油和鱼油只差一个字,吃多了后果可大不一样

下一篇:共享单车二维码遭遇破坏,这个锅谁来背?

举报

大家都在看

正在加载,请稍候...

评论(0条)

 
发表评论请

正在加载,请稍候...