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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

JjVhZTA5MjhlNDVhMzY=

c6ad9e82b02b4fa28a47bf32152198ac8c8f1506

0daad2e47c59f12e30e4450845597f1c

如今我们日常接触到的aa0657ec98c971e92754be321c7d7919af360ef3,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计KjVhZTA5MjhlNTM0MGE=7ed45da3dd9ddd3c94d3998b980151463b62fb9d

dae17475a14ba749b061286580697948698d72f6

除此之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6jGWypbmi,现在的温度计d86c8f5171036534995c5d787db8b1dd8424cc7e,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等5e8faafa6aa0dd4e886b2c76ccc66232,非常多的种类a12466aba4ee6036d848f073f168d4348508495bf61bb3f9baea0c131e36c3a1dd0edc5b

NWFlMDkyOGU0NjI5Mg==

56f4028fbe3619734920edb217d7ef54

e3e387fee3bedee7f0d57388e3d6d1da

● 半导体温度计d69703eb1f8c79659a41d4030ecdf084

NWFlMDkyOGU0NjgxNQ==

不过NWFlMDkyOGU0ZWJjOA==,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂5450eb8083a02da056993066623e0145ITVhZTA5MjhlNDY5NzM=

beb99188cb60c8b7441a1c27a51a6c47

1624年IzVhZTA5MjhlNGVkMjE=,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中JDVhZTA5MjhlNGVlOTA=446114e8eb73743562eb49a04956be3c

ef3a2eb72ac28585283aeb79b1626fa5

最早出现了“温度计”这个词MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSZgaCanbKHhGaxuK2iXjVhZTA5MjhlNDZlZTM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3kaCwzr2i

不过cd210c494820ebfc82dc75578a1e4fd2,史学家通常把温度计的发明3cfae9fd3f2ecb971fcb105d60d79ae2,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHhGe9pbmiXjVhZTA5MjhlNDcxOWU=

12bd45dc791d62d76e356f298bf52f23

28b74a5a64091bb5e7d059d5b9bd685fa48c805c

1349ca31b3283e1d97fd35c840c42264d9c192ed

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3mmS9tcei

● 伽利略MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSZgaCanbJ3mmawk7Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3mmeytc-i

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6kKuyqL2i,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器70d64a8890f154d386b0b748cba768577868b638

9882faa20c1360d3a2d67ea1a0c999e9

玻璃管一端开口MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6kK2wpa2i,一端是玻璃泡2cc9eddbe89936da9101e929989c2dcda5b83dcd,把开口的一端插进水里3e0d244a7f9217de7a1973f4a977d78a3463612b,加热上方玻璃泡0aabfac6f476dd2c9e43adfd7c699be7,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升e18a1a9063deb422eb8c26cfed1597ce38c6582545ca2abb8ef8b9d427af999094f3c5bd

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3m5-wpaWi

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度JDVhZTA5MjhlNGZhMjM=,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中55868c4e36b3d0553134aa757714f24168dedcde,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念b965829ad178f11ba6d893564bc8746dMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3m6Cxy6mi

e343a7d12cd8ef1dd6da8d734ce9f2e574f00f4b

601cbbb818dc84e6911f5ce3e28b339b

IzVhZTA5MjhlNDg0ODU=

● 伽利略温度计JTVhZTA5MjhlNDg1ZGE=

cab7809cf44aa96f882ec39b7ead680c6040ecc1

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单1db10408ca635c0793d37f9ca8d284bd1957442594ac7d64c1bd84c7d376ea63

40ffa8880a6f74220a706b5b12e1dad7

依靠空气的热胀冷缩2fe93261533a6cba7115cd43fe2e2177c810fbadMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3n5uxqL2i

352f3914a106627798ac8b8ad64c4053f15cc9d7

不过这种温度计不会太精确MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6kZ6xzrGi,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响90ef635a2d4d21175fd3899029e755949b539174,还受大气压强影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHhZ-ypbWicd782e984ec9bc0f15bf91fa1781d37c

f7690831b766cb068d77efab8ad16f94c1f333a5

于是MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDps7dg32HYrF3eGOx2KGi,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计50aac8bfbd75b4aff1d62e229638de4e4463c7caMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3n6C827Gi

1650年876586d4a2c75e1e3d07ed1d154f264febfc935a,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们QDVhZTA5MjhlNTA0NmY=,把伽利略的装置开口封死103b8d19347ade996a5202912a4fa677,上下倒置NWFlMDkyOGU1MDc3Mw==,管内放入着色酒精XjVhZTA5MjhlNTA4ZTI=,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHiKuxy8uiKjVhZTA5MjhlNDkyMjA=

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点cc94f07daa4edff94828807860e64cfa,再均匀分割刻度30ee610052c4b28012a073322c477fb2b8424f1a404dcafa4cecdb3122685d8435429914a4fbd3b1

a021a5e1feab3833e910ed5fa93ea85430eda15c

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了6e7c50150eff7c0c65c331fcd90eb86b665310054eee20f1c9890c8992db0d08669a3237

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ3omWyqLGi

QDVhZTA5MjhlNDk5MTA=

QDVhZTA5MjhlNDlhYjY=

74b7ba98055b15738956a5ee5f42dc8a7239e8f3

XjVhZTA5MjhlNDlkYTg=

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)dc8352404c9a38f9c7cff5f68b5b4fc5

JDVhZTA5MjhlNGEwOTk=

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时KjVhZTA5MjhlNTBiYzM=,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计a49c9480dfb95dba7ea6274b7b0314afMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6fKq9uLWi

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计5cbd6178d04f02d58c71f0e7d283684d5e877184,很迅速地传播到了中国KjVhZTA5MjhlNTQ4NDY=IzVhZTA5MjhlNGEzNzk=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDps7dg32HYb2HhZ68sqGi

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——ed47fe50583cea76b926889cb7745d2e

6fb6c37bb65d72a130381d3cbcc0db6866462062

欧洲传教士MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHiGeytc-ia9bfdaad0066b6fac48e3690fdbcaba4

9077ba74dea5e755cd72befb0abadb4070fe84e1

最早向中国介绍温度计的IzVhZTA5MjhlNTBlOTc=,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁6652e62964044b1602b39201808b20f2b97f059c705de2f89818c03c272d5d8fc675f85c

ITVhZTA5MjhlNGFkY2I=

d1d55428cb6c51d6826256d283a54e18d2b95dab

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6faC8tami

IzVhZTA5MjhlNGIyM2I=

KjVhZTA5MjhlNGIzYjI=

● 南怀仁MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSZgaCanbJ6gGOwpb2i

5aa229fe404fff2632e77766db74e09a8ac2a374

顺治十六年(1659年)032cdedaab78aa640ebf0d26455dfc9a,南怀仁来华QDVhZTA5MjhlNTExODQ=,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监d8e1abf0fbaeb65458c1d7d616425505,后升任工部右侍郎ee0563ea5613e5db625d897e9b0e125ce6fccb3a6c11e526dcca303f0070bc74

康熙九年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHfK2wk72i,也就是1670年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHfGO8tcui,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHfGWwta2i,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》7daa7cd6b2d8b48dbeb656406aaaab24MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6gGextc-i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSZgaCanbJ6gGi9taWi

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管a05727f4d8ec1698b807502d384c0794,球内空气热胀冷缩时MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHfGe9y6Wi,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降8c33911f44d5410ced9be5e371593beb8cf7b876,U形管一共有十个刻度MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHiZ-xy8ei5438736f4db420f332bafe1260ee79a5c365328c

24eafc90e9035de5b10b04b2434414a7

和伽利略温度计一样66fd7c69b51d8c13dd7f2848963e64c706de30aa,这种空气温度计并不精确XjVhZTA5MjhlNTFlNjA=,但是对于当时的中国人来说MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHfZ-8y6mi,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了ac92d38c6a6a3b5959e4e8cf3a46ff839c019d0bb92b921d1c5c4ddbecf638191ee5adec5f89bfad

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6gaC8tb2i

0de40d11ecb58d5ba6f8aac274afc05a

QDVhZTA5MjhlNGMzYWE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6hK29zrWi

bad0255410568ee678d2aaef5fd01172ede04afc

● 南怀仁制作的温度计97e1efcae51076d23bcf076da943d552

十年后eacde99710a4748901412bc9efb80957,更精确的法国原装进口温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHgKuytaWi,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝d34bf89cc81b256318a86cfe39a2a49cJTVhZTA5MjhlNGM5N2I=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6hGi8k6mi

1689年康熙南巡MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHgKy9y8ei,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫NWFlMDkyOGU1MjU5Mg==,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家c5f0804ee19d573a14c6da2834324aa112f719ad献上西洋方物12种cc29db84fcac4adba0b9e50858249156f822706bcb219a07aee7d8df4b96628770cc3f7f

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里JjVhZTA5MjhlNTI4N2Q=162e422ed0a4c0a88032d38314529dcfe8005d41

4030ab1b731f117a060d22add04880f8644efd31

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种6b06327b294a1de9caef84698389a8d3,余物退回MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHjGOwzrWi1009fafc4f5beb01ba74fcf669b1722c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSZgaCanbJ6iKq9pbWi

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSZgaCanbKHgZuw28ei,万岁爷要收下f73d7333df86347eb6f1f20c66078ff1,奈途次难带KjVhZTA5MjhlNTJlMzQ=,先生往后遇便送至京师”QDVhZTA5MjhlNTU2YmE=b5a08ca8b3ab2c55926f21b65bbe399ca5fa41fe

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6iK2ytbmi

JjVhZTA5MjhlNGQ2MmI=

12494476f12872d1c3ab5666c6dd3776

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型NWFlMDkyOGU0ZDkzYw==

ITVhZTA5MjhlNGRhYWY=

1690年2月968e2d9f75a28e01a52deec086d58a136d897896,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSZgaCanbKHgaC9y7mi153b1039ea0ad59d591294ef9f62b833b112103c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSZgaCanbJ6iZ2xzq2i

成为康熙的日常爱用品bdb558bab7102081df83d0052fb74fc362802721c96a610e90a33aa8886726ce7011cc26

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSZgaCanbJ6iaCxpbmi

至于它们在民间的普及5426aff1bc79b8b8608d1d475c003ac14e523e2b,则是二十世纪以后的事情了dcb974164c1f6f0be842a9b2045403aa5a0547e1IzVhZTA5MjhlNGUxZDQ=

ITVhZTA5MjhlNGUzM2U=

43a5ee2f6e0d43e1786ca560a4ffc029666e79a3

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