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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

b84c149950b26acac66f4b530072d721

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3f6d705cb28bfe4bb24d046dcfee17bc

如今我们日常接触到的bba07f3e632b0d22433f09e742e1df42,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计99ca21491cf9f17961f0af92e1ecd2adITVhNjcxODAxNDI3Y2M=

b8a32e195d3d132ecaeb5e31e1dfe02e346696d8

除此之外QDVhNjcxODAxNGE4MTU=,现在的温度计JTVhNjcxODAxNGE5NTM=,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等4f54203eba0d95a8cb8138d94fa5bd8b0695fdcb,非常多的种类IzVhNjcxODAxNGYzNDc=770cfd2f62cb322d64110420845e4061e625afb5

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MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3gZ6wy7Gi

● 半导体温度计47bd468e6d01bfad18c89d1685deeb7d3f3f096a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3gaC8taWi

不过d7dd82430220eb8e3655794e86d643f8a61eb058,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6kK2yuK2iNWE2NzE4MDE0MzFkZA==

71e5c919594b732ba066ad3fd1976579

1624年b602805e2df009689660f5863e519c377315ca98,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中da02a5324cf242dc2097cbb1cf27c349526d118987c1356fdae39f2400645504791412a8

4a3297ff01419cb2723a39f9cc040dec

最早出现了“温度计”这个词ITVhNjcxODAxNGY2MWU=QDVhNjcxODAxNDM3MjM=

5f0aa92b670b15cf992e2c2d1c575f5636b593c9

不过93191251030a76dccffd49910fee6d644b1b377d,史学家通常把温度计的发明2983efeb05b62c1c49013cd5f510c3eb65f66528,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiE3KiYgXp3Yb6dkGa8sqGi942ddb1e1b1206228d52fa1f9b27af83

QDVhNjcxODAxNDNhZTQ=

333d6bbeb3479900acc5ed32d46f526c

f34d669e8949257f895f5949140f6f19

IzVhNjcxODAxNDNlYTU=

● 伽利略ed3151444396a877fe8aec5c8423fdd6b6151889

e1568c99aa318ef37567568239903856714c6f29

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录b2aadc1fdfa1e3c975f69e79766c9601,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器ce84e0db1144dfc3fcf87b31996e7692

6babea221d3154f57d4df597934fea1c

玻璃管一端开口NWE2NzE4MDE0YjNiZg==,一端是玻璃泡MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6gGOwta2i,把开口的一端插进水里QDVhNjcxODAxNGI2ODI=,加热上方玻璃泡XjVhNjcxODAxNGI3ZTU=,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升f73e3f268455b001f9ebda8856d4049ac0332ff9MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3iGOwpa2i

ITVhNjcxODAxNDQ2NDQ=

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZiE3KiYgXp3Yb2dnmOwyKGi,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中JTVhNjcxODAxNGJhYmY=,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念f8b924b57416c83dce21485a95706ee6c09f57c663716c90c2e06d0c64aa870bb3f2b712

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3iGa9pc-i

QDVhNjcxODAxNDRhMWU=

158f3b07e2df83e4f28f23b795512418

● 伽利略温度计JTVhNjcxODAxNDRjYTU=

JTVhNjcxODAxNDRkZWI=

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单NWE2NzE4MDE0YmMzMA==MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3iZ-w272i

6a90c9376cbde4ce248713bbb16aafe6e2cc5985

依靠空气的热胀冷缩JjVhNjcxODAxNGZiZTU=0fdbb8ac9e1f9f60701a38c0e747e55961b88dfa

7f2e39c0bc7459c0e5110d04a9077349eae50e36

不过这种温度计不会太精确NWE2NzE4MDE0YmRhNQ==,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响96e92f00151823af933419caa9709128,还受大气压强影响8bef8cde3e6ef331b7dc44d49d139070MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3jK2xqLGi

52fa422ee62f5acef573167728ded63a72c83c4b

于是126d0f470f7e716ecd952b9813e537826d97b182,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计b7e8b007add6acf74d6653c2d5a3559b2c5d11e2999c0944c8cbfd053f708cae2665b7f9

1650年2f01edfd227480be659d0c222d7ba9ad259d6246,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们JjVhNjcxODAxNGMzM2U=,把伽利略的装置开口封死JDVhNjcxODAxNGM0YTk=,上下倒置8990f27910295e06e7b1ead58c3b68d310d7d19d,管内放入着色酒精7dbf1151a4465a612eef77c6a340b9d8a5802f3e,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度KjVhNjcxODAxNTAwMWU=33df871332640c4c42b999a4e5f53df6163a5e94

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点8f9957b6309757946868223e7d41087e1a0b615a,再均匀分割刻度QDVhNjcxODAxNTAxOTI=633f9eec4c1cbeea4577726895219b03

ITVhNjcxODAxNDVhYTA=

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了f84ae7505b591013033cb0771245307aMDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3jZu9uKmi

57a8e0c789c14c27d669cff07479e726

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3jZ6xzrmi

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JDVhNjcxODAxNDYwZTc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3kKuw262i

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)d1d8a3ad562a6e976768cccc02d9b490ddba78df

b835e5237c9b340125d1ab035eeb8a7fd4e78585

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时a4bfb3780bb99f13a0e9f0f72d22eda6,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbKHeK2xtceiITVhNjcxODAxNDY2NDE=

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计29d1087dfdf9a302c17d1ee850410102,很迅速地传播到了中国JTVhNjcxODAxNTA1ZTI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3kGWytbWi

c341b5a1917f66baacd644669a1ebbe10e084200

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——d355bd366622407deb754b9af8b0ac34d63b6e39

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3kZu9pa2i

欧洲传教士cdbd5401034f4aa78d23d61661c6b12aJjVhNjcxODAxNDZkNjE=

IzVhNjcxODAxNDZlY2Y=

最早向中国介绍温度计的d92149ecfc248ae06c75761f728d80542e363298,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁d5e5e07fad6fdb440d33037f8cb0cb33491bf96b020be3605a6326724dd9da39

NWE2NzE4MDE0NzFhMQ==

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● 南怀仁ae01db0da9abed57db6782f586f0b736

NWE2NzE4MDE0N2EyMA==

顺治十六年(1659年)8e9013f1e0d9ea84c6e12a679d6684568577217c,南怀仁来华2915c02f6e644e9d725b254ecb8bd67d,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6iKqw28-i,后升任工部右侍郎JDVhNjcxODAxNTBhMTQ=720179b6d84922d9a6a1cc25d7736c283adedef6

康熙九年18ff07faeeaf71523e8804ca1ee7c3531fff138c,也就是1670年c9cc071db3097315116b72bdc12af60292de776c,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计QDVhNjcxODAxNGQ1Nzc=,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》ITVhNjcxODAxNTBiNzc=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3m5y9tami

ff61a92ded912fafaf7ffddbd8b1b8c3

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管QDVhNjcxODAxNGQ2ZTA=,球内空气热胀冷缩时MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6iGaw27Gi,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6iGeytb2i,U形管一共有十个刻度JjVhNjcxODAxNTBjZDk=e645373d88e99dacee5ea06b80e10e65b0325a9c

d0359e47b210d7bafd7cf8335f4891e6

和伽利略温度计一样MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6iGi9y8-i,这种空气温度计并不精确IzVhNjcxODAxNGRjN2U=,但是对于当时的中国人来说MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6iZ29pami,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzMbcg3pzqbKHeZ6w26miMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3nquypami

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IzVhNjcxODAxNDg1NzE=

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5d192bbaa1e841c84f689ae1bed851691cf48ef1

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3nmexpbGi

● 南怀仁制作的温度计0c27cd7027073c3c5339369ac254b3a2

十年后80bfab92de3e5bce0090a367e5744bccedb3ed0f,更精确的法国原装进口温度计NWE2NzE4MDE0ZTBjZQ==,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝8aabe5f87d87b4171601dbc306f822971b3e5ca4d054818960b4384b5b94eacb2b952fcb

ce68e7a2acf577e4be498c77ee288f00

1689年康熙南巡e0ee3b6b9e6307466b08bb78d73c422632ed72e7,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6jKyyuLmi,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家7cab43c4cce87e851f029d60b896ebad1e133d84献上西洋方物12种KjVhNjcxODAxNTEwYzg=KjVhNjcxODAxNDhlNDU=

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里0aac22b8f26ac73998080d2f7907308bMDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3n5-yqL2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3n6C8k7Gi

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种JDVhNjcxODAxNGU3ZTk=,余物退回bdc4d9d1456be233851a73883e26e214c236df999c40cacc754072458c4fed750bb794fa

KjVhNjcxODAxNDkzOTI=

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管JTVhNjcxODAxNGU5NTQ=,万岁爷要收下6ee9b32633c52788c37848c541efc489,奈途次难带5cb7ed23186dfe2b54b5e07d0c559205,先生往后遇便送至京师”JDVhNjcxODAxNTEzNTQ=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3oq29tcei

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3omSxqKmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ3omW8uLWi

QDVhNjcxODAxNDk5MmI=

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型8ee0751d3285cd7794d5e4a8ab96d22d8cd3f77c

125387612714ecd3ef0f1757b929da03c3a9de79

1690年2月2ce2603a06574b597505623892e47162660b2ac7,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿97c043f77e5f22c590ab843b785240a714d2fa9eQDVhNjcxODAxNDlkNzQ=

1addfbba512acc5a7578544d7f5e3e49

成为康熙的日常爱用品849360622506133f322157164eb84fde5e5429c1IzVhNjcxODAxNGEwNDI=

7453af23d65af9debd16ff1a03ee00ff

至于它们在民间的普及IzVhNjcxODAxNGYwNTA=,则是二十世纪以后的事情了1afa8f46c3ede32b27c3080d86ac0a9257afd980MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6EzMbcg3pzqbJ6fKu9qL2i

JDVhNjcxODAxNGE0MjY=

KjVhNjcxODAxNGE1NjQ=

 

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