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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

XjVhZTA4ZjM1YjhkYjE=

c45e984346c962993d6f1bce5f7370af05a54f79

KjVhZTA4ZjM1YjkwYjc=

如今我们日常接触到的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tfZuypbmi,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计IzVhZTA4ZjM1YzY5Yzk=84af1be2cdd1ed10a1954a0d7c895b4c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2doqyxy8ei

除此之外f020bf5638b429e8276eecbb7eec38a5,现在的温度计5850ce877f7196612f0cb254a96311e6515d7965,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tfZ-9pbGi,非常多的种类0864a1c076c7fdb2f0fdd122caaab059JDVhZTA4ZjM1Yjk0ZWY=

38fa8bb169ee6cfce0feea957f1e1aaeb8e3a42e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDpsvRgbCImrOHkZy8yKGi

bdccff3d2553569847041f9a6bc64f604b49ef55

● 半导体温度计bc0db67ce960647918058018ae402d735452d516

QDVhZTA4ZjM1YjljMDg=

不过JTVhZTA4ZjM1YzIxNzY=,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tkZyypbWiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2do52xtcei

QDVhZTA4ZjM1YjllZWE=

1624年7ccd89ebd3c7b3b6f8bd03848f901566c15001b4,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中NWFlMDhmMzVjMjQ1Ng==MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2do6Cwk6mi

aaee7b06b2645056c767db36ee4075e2

最早出现了“温度计”这个词JjVhZTA4ZjM1YzZlMTM=dbbf39f8c91845efd2ff14990c2f08d4d3202788

ITVhZTA4ZjM1YmE0ODM=

不过ed0526b3d633caf3f94511688b6e268e68660f00,史学家通常把温度计的发明a6bbaa9f3278ff5d02e4b819a43f6741,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略808461d1a8d8402f141f2e2b35b5dfb23d1ebccca35d0cefeaab7fe0f24c60ac

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gfGWw26Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gfGaytaWi

JTVhZTA4ZjM1YmFhMjA=

6539d7aac7c2e28b9f9f8a2afb07d498

● 伽利略2f58bb78354d445f79a399e24d73a1f0

5f3bac4fbe504d37ae275e2fd706bd6b790782c8

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录8a5288bf71bd6a47c8d5c8245528d373,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器8edd6660234d5db3bbe414adac2bf2769d5d7dbe

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ggKqwzr2i

玻璃管一端开口IzVhZTA4ZjM1YzJhMTA=,一端是玻璃泡469c1a4149436fd5967d81afe3f2224d,把开口的一端插进水里MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tgZy9uLGi,加热上方玻璃泡a9fda3009cb1136003ea09d2d3aeffbb,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升NWFlMDhmMzVjNzEyYg==66fad8e0bdaf7426f1f46abf49e646399714889f

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ggKy9uLmi

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度da5ec047319fd7873897965f88f871d11e8f4791,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中ed90bccf8487fc0f1779237d1fbea25616084bbb,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDpsvRgbCIm7KtfGeysqGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ggGOx27Wi

b5701ca284307da9feedfb2b1cc3b54b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ggGaxuLGi

3e64a9be3f0e1ca6d0956d7fd1659658

● 伽利略温度计cf8d19fe52a3282877b446ccb341a6db0126f7aa

ITVhZTA4ZjM1YmJjODY=

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单d521ab8e30a3ec3aef6bce3d7222b78e9091804e2128ecfb11f8b07a23c044e224b0066e40848c5a

f5cbce7ba4fcd53c984bc1f1b0ab115a77218d75

依靠空气的热胀冷缩JjVhZTA4ZjM1Yzc0MGE=MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDpsvRgbCImr2gkGa9sqGi

c5cd64c7a45695e60f7aedff855bb14718520c7e

不过这种温度计不会太精确JDVhZTA4ZjM1YzM0MmE=,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2thGOxk62i,还受大气压强影响IzVhZTA4ZjM1Yzc1NzE=NWFlMDhmMzViYzM2MQ==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ghK28uL2i

于是de5d813e1e748d754198fe89a77e3e0c6e6ddc9a,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计2451b4885b11edb5214b5a86b3fff050MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ghGSwpc-i

1650年6f08dca3622eb4fb02cb779a7aedaaa9,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们cc77299a4067da1894395a627cfad3b2,把伽利略的装置开口封死ITVhZTA4ZjM1YzNiNDM=,上下倒置b51723b8975ba5a3ea588a527be8ccd5,管内放入着色酒精5738d8c2198fc32e7243b15a9c8860d4,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度25d8637c088589bf5f031eb4b18c1586f26053a5a87bd5f23e35b374ba7c8c00e679000d

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点1a56cc20fb5d0ef04be6c3f9a76fdd6b,再均匀分割刻度JjVhZTA4ZjM1Yzc5ZDQ=JTVhZTA4ZjM1YmM4ZGI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ghGiwy8ui

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了11196a9958594e083c498a0f3dabcdede3374457ef980491f6f531cf6023f053

JjVhZTA4ZjM1YmNjZDc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2ghZ6wzq2i

bf7ac96847cfd7d82e7af3b041d4bdb108f0cc73

998b511e42f5c52d34c0fdae5106f2bbbdec855d

IzVhZTA4ZjM1YmQyYjE=

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)07fa331e5868852671f99d7e11e698c6

ITVhZTA4ZjM1YmQ1OWI=

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时888b1f25c066c41f1bc8087712feb850,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计2c81942b53efba4e94891942b484c04d05ec47f63845bb4de11cc73144dc913ee6a5e0b3

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tiKuxtbWi,很迅速地传播到了中国IzVhZTA4ZjM1YzdlMjg=JjVhZTA4ZjM1YmQ4Nzg=

KjVhZTA4ZjM1YmQ5ZjI=

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——6db09ceefffc0bb9b784378c340ed7e1

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2giZy8y72i

欧洲传教士MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tm5-x28-iITVhZTA4ZjM1YmRlNDI=

8a963b272affbb906ac68139086c3e7ac7219e0d

最早向中国介绍温度计的JjVhZTA4ZjM1YzQzZDc=,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tm6C9tbmi47fddf67b64bbeb3ec8f18b1bd071dae2d5d25d6

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gjKuxzr2i

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63b25b9cfa9681690c0172fb0906b0bf

99f2df49431b326e9ba028b5e8068f28aebab584

XjVhZTA4ZjM1YmU4NDg=

● 南怀仁4616faa9c27401ef179c34bde257d68dee469ec8

b031723cfc4e223482767eccbb69ccd85b5b55ee

顺治十六年(1659年)XjVhZTA4ZjM1YzQ1NGQ=,南怀仁来华MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tiGSyuLmi,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tiGawtcei,后升任工部右侍郎MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tnquxqLmiMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDpsvRgbCImr6KgGeysqGi

康熙九年ITVhZTA4ZjM1YzQ5YmY=,也就是1670年MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tiZuwuLmi,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计6d3c468e2723cedaf502a19e6e4b2dfa1f152d1b,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》IzVhZTA4ZjM1YzgzZTM=cfe06a26bb8bd340d5f497d034a2b26e

bfba2195bbd70a257d83c283bddd4b90e2adda40

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管NWFlMDhmMzVjNGU0Yg==,球内空气热胀冷缩时JDVhZTA4ZjM1YzRmYmI=,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降b74224d1f262f3121da2de59618952ba21fb4bde,U形管一共有十个刻度864b9b6fdd8bf73ab5e2ac7eaa9fb50b7ee7a6d8MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gkKqwqLGi

597d7daacd55b66db94cc7f80859f3b0

和伽利略温度计一样MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tjKuypaWi,这种空气温度计并不精确36ace40ed5522fb6c2e1a1f93bb8df3d,但是对于当时的中国人来说MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tjGOxy6mi,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了ffd33883a017c4ebb5e93156bd868eb0e1676f22bf660c2603548345c97a6ed1

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gkGOypbGi

179f9ac1eaea31eb279d54313d39ecdd07e3fd77

JjVhZTA4ZjM1YmY4YjM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gkGiwpcui

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gkZuytcei

● 南怀仁制作的温度计79b54a0b899ef8ac00f9961ae554391f17e5541d

十年后028ac9a947b48527278120d7f317b6dfd1b06b1e,更精确的法国原装进口温度计240cd5eefa7656e36d11bf0a107d704f66b45933,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝dfc50b2b53bdd5098538f74d383797fdfbe3882160d858143943ec9bf14ba70ad64c39eb

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2gkaCw26mi

1689年康熙南巡IzVhZTA4ZjM1YzU5ZDg=,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDpsvRgbCIm7KKfK2xsqGi,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDpsvRgbCIm7KKgZu8yKGi献上西洋方物12种9f18d9f958df675ffcc508c7b4c89272e51bb5d8MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2teKq8uLGi

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里189bed7dd785801e93961d9f65c5034d87015fe4MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2teKywy8ei

bd159b006986b5ec6a9e231907beabd1

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种8a120c0ed42c427eebb5b79867097089,余物退回9cfb51702f1aa041495f72a03cdd9f8a4e3798f9f8c8d2f2ceb66fbf63dd88f493e3a180

QDVhZTA4ZjM1YzA3ZTU=

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管XjVhZTA4ZjM1YzYxMTE=,万岁爷要收下QDVhZTA4ZjM1YzYyOTI=,奈途次难带JjVhZTA4ZjM1YzY0MDI=,先生往后遇便送至京师”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tn5yxuL2if066ab6e515a0cb011fc8241d6fbd1f9483438af

40c075df25fd80f0c8432276c937cade5af11119

ede7d714d19916a1eebdfb03be53140b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDpsvRgbCIm7F6hZ28sqGi

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型bc7724fbed14b9fd9e839dade32bacc4e67941c1

00c35e0394704730bdb4195e11ec8def

1690年2月JDVhZTA4ZjM1YzY1Njk=,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿JDVhZTA4ZjM1YzY2ZTM=XjVhZTA4ZjM1YzExZWU=

KjVhZTA4ZjM1YzEzNjY=

成为康熙的日常爱用品c2942b0e9d105296411b6518f68b15de407b15d48e04237b2b8f43327148c36c94082a0b

d5b41f5e21af28ef2372126a7c14ccf4bb9a1142

至于它们在民间的普及MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tkGaw27mi,则是二十世纪以后的事情了KjVhZTA4ZjM1YzhmNmQ=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqSYjqB_Yr2tfGWxuLGi

IzVhZTA4ZjM1YzE4YzA=

2bf8cb19c2dbe870a821c48b7230cf25

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