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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHeGiw272i

JTVhZTBmNDk3NTBiYzg=

3d1cab601ec0110c73213e82c0dbb44f

如今我们日常接触到的XjVhZTBmNDk3NTk1NDU=,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKjK2827Gicb26a98b4c6751c9787bdfe0b7b35178eeaed46a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKHeZ-9qLWi

除此之外3fcb0d8d37f6f0bcd20555ce728dca169a810ac0,现在的温度计cdfdccb335d055777d9929456ef0ef4f,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等a0c59cb5dc7f4c6b3e70b3166ec51021,非常多的种类MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKKjGSxqKmi3fa34111a05766cf70f3615762191a02

1ba97ec85bc2fe2eba03119ae398aaea

QDVhZTBmNDk3NTE0MDA=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKHfGOxqLmi

● 半导体温度计48212f6d0c7a1ae7bd33a52b2fc4b873

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHfGawpb2i

不过MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYrOHo5uwyKGi,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂985443b73d2ba232cd763965c914b1a7cad5119d38a9cc8ce601dad2f958560a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHfGi8y7mi

1624年cbbde8efdbec9a3c150a7342d3391aa5,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中843285f5af833febd21469840206c55301023cacc430fcf7d1eb68d2a20a3880536486ad

7a9f91a780ae6fb30e5c745e23360e04

最早出现了“温度计”这个词dd1d932369378d360ddfc5eb536ce5edcc5e2539cd3d9282957fba9b0f164184

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHfaCwy62i

不过d79a4b33d7fa90860b63357812bf90c7,史学家通常把温度计的发明XjVhZTBmNDk3NWEwM2I=,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略d803a25e5c6b8ce823caf714489fce4ac0847a1aMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYrGdeGe9oqGi

JjVhZTBmNDk3NTIyZTk=

8c3a37b93ba58fdeeae9bf265ffb4245

IzVhZTBmNDk3NTI1OTg=

6d26880e1c2fb4744761ad8a8550fe34

● 伽利略d5760f2268b7b4a5408959d1095babd5b4f51fc2

ITVhZTBmNDk3NTI5YjA=

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录57b1fb31f9c110360b7ccb6a25f70ec7e865aa0c,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器IzVhZTBmNDk3NTJiMDY=

c79e136111b3d29e55fa03cf00813bce

玻璃管一端开口2eb980f264c537da3efa43467a5176b67cf8a527,一端是玻璃泡68b4b03bcef235e38edde0c9f06ead93,把开口的一端插进水里MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKKfGO9y7Wi,加热上方玻璃泡5642dccb8df42a56e46eb83c90d41463d2350cda,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升NWFlMGY0OTc1ZWNhNQ==353b5e415f8eb76dc79a6c8121b7d343d5a239b9

c9133f5fbc67aef29e1eb80e4226380e

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKKfGa9zrmi,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYr2HomexsqGi,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念XjVhZTBmNDk3NWVlMmE=3bfa55fa8590927863297a80c52d87bfa0b9538c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHhKq9tbGi

f7a3f2734554402494ba0077a2590ba8c6a063ff

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYrGthZu9yKGi

● 伽利略温度计JDVhZTBmNDk3NTM1ZGY=

2df7543c6064c625b4a8923f8555954cd7ddb5ee

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKfZu9zr2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYrGtmme9oqGi

3a47c2192f1039e5ac4fac82d897218886745c10

依靠空气的热胀冷缩0207622263bcac34fd3f8ce381a43aa7dcf850579e384aa29d28c7688a52115b

XjVhZTBmNDk3NTNjYTE=

不过这种温度计不会太精确470926c37dc2a6c05adffcefd85af79f,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响KjVhZTBmNDk3NWFmMTQ=,还受大气压强影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKkKqwtcui8fb88a669c58c9a58ffab7e17c3955fa

79e3e166eb2fc2b6a66ee64ba43714eb

于是MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKfaCxy8-i,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计NWFlMGY0OTc1ZjJjMA==2594bcfd6ea7d2c63697cd5745921d39dfa2b809

1650年67b836c83c63f21318055da84199bd6f,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们IzVhZTBmNDk3NWIzOWI=,把伽利略的装置开口封死MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKgK29y6Wi,上下倒置7bf6b327d366ed4f0da80409dfef82b479bb9451,管内放入着色酒精MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKgGW9y7mi,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度5f7b270eb45f199b47859f12f22b6f227096877795edb0338f480904c30655b2af72e6ad

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点JjVhZTBmNDk3NWI5OWI=,再均匀分割刻度ITVhZTBmNDk3NWY1ZDA=ITVhZTBmNDk3NTQzNjk=

1a1e87fb5b6c625dc04938944582ab35

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了b7737ac5b7c161d00f1ff65c338c30049e9ddb0fMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYrJ3iaCx2KGi

7913d2a746a41de4163c3d902862b7fb

KjVhZTBmNDk3NTQ4YWQ=

ea3c266b19603fd4477764a3a29cc41ce6f7f832

QDVhZTBmNDk3NTRiNTM=

4528c8dd7240375484e63d8364db1fde

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)5f513126a1435158b52e13fba8bb41ad7d8ebaf2

XjVhZTBmNDk3NTRmOTA=

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时QDVhZTBmNDk3NWJiMjA=,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计QDVhZTBmNDk3NWY4Y2M=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKHiaC9qLWi

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计8b0d8aabcce78e157c7bd1dd80d8b5cf,很迅速地传播到了中国3c88ec03c01660d669e6a4aa36217c2aef05e46f0bb6b7218930605ec88722da36bebbe4a89c82bc

ded23f84499d1974a87fd154cc595239

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——JjVhZTBmNDk3NTU0ZTU=

IzVhZTBmNDk3NTU2NmQ=

欧洲传教士ITVhZTBmNDk3NWZiYzk=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKHjGW827Gi

NWFlMGY0OTc1NTk2Yg==

最早向中国介绍温度计的59d6634178e8736aaadc63d2a88706c9,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKkZ2wuL2i0cc2bce2c440baa608dd2f5207c3154b178c1679

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHjZywk7Gi

b056dbe9a6dbdc7602cff2c276ddf19f

ITVhZTBmNDk3NTVmNTY=

e8ea75f5b5fadbc2950cfc44c0210351d9add33b

acf3666e41b6ffa4d03e05139d712f9a

● 南怀仁2d069384c868688313b08d4923d5bc6217445476

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHkGOw28ei

顺治十六年(1659年)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKgZ-x26mi,南怀仁来华87f32ab99aacb78dbf78a0a24995cedd8a3b29d8,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监3532cc7998dfd7a0dc2b841355b0aeb2,后升任工部右侍郎621295b41a7558ad45fa5aaf47ef81b61c7647aa274793a709ffc7eedb7b3602481d130b

康熙九年NWFlMGY0OTc1YzQxOA==,也就是1670年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKKhGOxzrmi,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计IzVhZTBmNDk3NWM3MDg=,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》b6511c08a2615d479c1994c86f1e80e8NWFlMGY0OTc1Njg2Zg==

810c7a037e35315afc19ab5f6e4eddd8f59cded9

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKhGaxuLWi,球内空气热胀冷缩时6e61a16273961761f8261e155401347d,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYr1lfGWwoqGi,U形管一共有十个刻度XjVhZTBmNDk3NjAxZWI=859cae1d56b6bb5614d1c33138ac6ba067dc84f8

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHkZy827Wi

和伽利略温度计一样MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKKhZy9qLmi,这种空气温度计并不精确MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKhZ6xtb2i,但是对于当时的中国人来说d16f4f9395dc60dab66d6bb7998137a824503b09,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKdeKyxpa2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHkZ6wk7mi

a8984dd13842c862994529213bc899f32c832b3a

QDVhZTBmNDk3NTcxNmY=

ITVhZTBmNDk3NTcyZWE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKHmq2wk72i

000d86d8c9b7153bef4bcf9db072c94585fdd5b1

● 南怀仁制作的温度计f4db9e8a626097d946b114a58429b8b2

十年后6c36520e2a2ff34608be57c055cc5eea,更精确的法国原装进口温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKKiKu9qLWi,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝fb9064fc83ebf387f2d407f08b1e76de1fa0de448d060e840c3f9d1c1b20e945349e9990

d037c96fd32a6514b2370280e777fc6d

1689年康熙南巡bfa5926db022d25b2775fcf37b6ccff2,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKKiGO9pbmi,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家b92b495f265e3d2a8f8b54254f02c5a4献上西洋方物12种951c5bc009be99df64f4a66c780c0333d0501794MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHm5u9qL2i

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里88d82236408ac854209313600ffba0ab6545d475435f342954d5a00ca40fe1c89ebdfac7

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHm569qK2i

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种0130fea91bc260f3b72cb0d5fbb2397186bdb9a4,余物退回JDVhZTBmNDk3NjA3ZGM=de324f14136025e29ca58dbff2d5de81

d9450dac7cd4c9b02ed16cce6593c2aa

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管8946eac39fc14df6787be4fba18654f2a0528cdb,万岁爷要收下2a03fa60a41a3d1fccae67772f0974b7,奈途次难带0a49bbe871589da81981e48d94bc82c071ef6153,先生往后遇便送至京师”7b4c011daff69d3468c5d8cb5190a07474b72defb184c69c786559fa4681264a775de26b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyUg4qVYrN3hZ68yKGi

0ce0a997760f3b268bf90a4a5da4e50b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHnmWyqL2i

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型370d5a6ab28be1a4aa9411baf99172230b5d9500

55105f5ef480f5614259b2af0dc1bd66

1690年2月d5e49bb149bd7975e78b6db76fc9610ad6d206ec,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿KjVhZTBmNDk3NWUxZGQ=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHn5uyqL2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKHn5y9tbGi

成为康熙的日常爱用品MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRgnqdZLKdeGi8uKmiXjVhZTBmNDk3NThlNGI=

dad2a7b33ede3da346e210e2ee4aac4ee66420c5

至于它们在民间的普及305001e21be7f64b07ace773a36da540,则是二十世纪以后的事情了MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgnqdZLKdeZywy62i2b1dd0d4a6067e3d9a35fe68f08f7808f49df581

c4180709838e9f2d7d8402a9c729e7b9498e9768

KjVhZTBmNDk3NTkzZTY=

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