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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

f557d54086935e632e2c3d4edc38660a46587b4a

3233ea7b2141d2181b598d0a696d5c8d1030357f

cdf294bf7dbb82d6178d79b4e69134ac

如今我们日常接触到的8272306c70e97b9d043a158a856dc476739773dc,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计445ca528ed34e7ce82cb394cf4257d839c9fbe93839e828a3232d8a99c99372aaa52a330d683b252

c8b7baee824047a684b72175464e93458289bc35

除此之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHeZu9pami,现在的温度计3f0590d294cc62c9822a7f4aa9a6deee75d21e97,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等26ffac0b3fe19d34a7a7bd6d4e011da6,非常多的种类42d1b0e88dd6a1887051b661b72baff9c82f9cd052f3bf0b3bc723414da43046

XjVhZTBmNzljMDg0MzA=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7F3nmOxk7mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgrCem7F3nmS9pbWi

● 半导体温度计e27d05a7de4f24e156c5e64d53f74c9e

db9a972faee47d79c735873f7cbb504e

不过10e58d34d918cc00578e3a2a74e2ab31,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂JDVhZTBmNzljMTViYmM=fd26b6e94cf4134c8b366710b294fcec5a7a2a4a

e4b2bde49fc2b8470d99e4b484377577

1624年cf607bdeaf2e7a28898603bd9f75abfc62c21cad,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中XjVhZTBmNzljMTEzMjU=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgrCem7F3n528uLmi

KjVhZTBmNzljMDhmMmI=

最早出现了“温度计”这个词5f95fc1777426b048b0f814c5797d0042de9306b895cc0f8bae25dc0073214d53ff0c6da483e3e4d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgrCem7F3oqq9paWi

不过22308eeeaaea4eb176f84f95d90ece970efd3434,史学家通常把温度计的发明e07b2cb099b4eaa0ae193f2808056764,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略ae1eff6478fea71df44a19cbb5ab9bbfJDVhZTBmNzljMDkzMzk=

NWFlMGY3OWMwOTQ5ZA==

f33a5aa2397d97888e72497f0a9de6fd2d19da44

63521447bf95df52d3ee8531b7f2ec95

XjVhZTBmNzljMDk4YWQ=

● 伽利略28dda7968038c26e2466e88bbf00787d

26d80ec85bc1e9c8c753a6ef52270f0e

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录2ce0a1771f449df328cca93aab10a97c,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器2c0db5b3fd5d04f93bbcbf88b587e08e6a745f05

ae9df33062d79a94fea6d5be43ca2e8e

玻璃管一端开口XjVhZTBmNzljMTE4ZTk=,一端是玻璃泡438fc5d8874c95573c03c22fb9f38389,把开口的一端插进水里0cea0ff621d1da765a2ded4c6b10899e,加热上方玻璃泡e299f273669498571f86a776a550fb35,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升KjVhZTBmNzljMTYwNDQ=0848bf241368634d82d0dc263ab4fab8

QDVhZTBmNzljMGEwYzA=

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHfZ6ypcui,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHfZ-9y6mi,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHkKqytcuiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgrCem7F6fKuwtaWi

449c11915250c95a73f8dbb1bea1108919d1acec

JjVhZTBmNzljMGE0ZmQ=

7e25d517c8bc94ec592d94526beb1ee5

● 伽利略温度计a60d88fcc78403fef1366f65bb4ac9f3

7657cb7d759ff7f5996a333488933610fd3367b3

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单eb84f4a29432e9f7d52f9a98f550537c53ddc1413fb79ded43627a88f3772d55

486d0ee378be8a933f27a57a16203571

依靠空气的热胀冷缩3769683eead7791709b5b007361226b071c3a463c9c5a84b4b2f7616a72b4d78

0b340db95238ecbe9a9873725196456c

不过这种温度计不会太精确0743268d3ee7514dfbecf4586a6ebdd3,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响585975c497528b7394ad01c4f65ee35ed72395e1,还受大气压强影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHkK2xk7mi52425c63057ce4fdbdcf89182bbba8e6

JTVhZTBmNzljMGIxYjQ=

于是052e6dd3c605ce6d2d3d84fa9482c902,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计XjVhZTBmNzljMTY2MGU=c8ba9bbf1544c092508af016b100bf9d85236e97

1650年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHgGWwuL2i,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们2876cd8f90e41377319449fd1ebea49b,把伽利略的装置开口封死MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHgGe9y62i,上下倒置bfda72e9838d259ace79c4c40e2eb41cc0d26495,管内放入着色酒精MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHgZy9pami,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度JTVhZTBmNzljMTY3N2Q=04fb6e03291577d8aa27ad04ee50fa13

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgrCem7GHgZ6xpb2i,再均匀分割刻度f4b47baaadd2e7f8ee47e8b6f25c055274ec418aNWFlMGY3OWMwYjY0ZQ==

f89b6a6b6b916e4bdd9e07bccfedfc3b

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了c86e2685c8861bd64dcd120dc2c68b6d324c5f2d07f2962e7047ea1c708ad894

KjVhZTBmNzljMGJhZTI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRgrCem7F6gZywk6mi

IzVhZTBmNzljMGJkZGY=

XjVhZTBmNzljMGJmNmE=

NWFlMGY3OWMwYzEwZA==

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgrCem7F6hKuxy7mi

QDVhZTBmNzljMGM0MmI=

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHgZ-8tbWi,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计c9a21302d384310892a638e2225426f3XjVhZTBmNzljMGM1YTk=

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计21ab5abf8c154f9a35a1dfb814e73280e8f41e92,很迅速地传播到了中国1bc5ac8b26e56094d9f0ac5e53fb47fc83bd4729JDVhZTBmNzljMGM3MjM=

8298697e0614c28a8a8598f9dc469a502a18bc44

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——0319302b5394c9e8c9d2095a735184c14411984b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7F6hZuypami

欧洲传教士JDVhZTBmNzljMTZlY2Q=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgrCem7F6hZy9zrGi

ITVhZTBmNzljMGNlYjM=

最早向中国介绍温度计的XjVhZTBmNzljMTMyN2I=,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁4a470e0c6c54f75cfd10b7893d145ee10992054dcf938c8e430751618e4234269e27fd16

9306e53d7cf66c7b03f4d168eb253215

f4a4a332efae301aba43a8c094661e09ab5da5b6

73d2ea4421f9c5fc9cd4476276b2e4d9

bbd4e22305398a07a52d98be763a96c25bf50e08

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6QtqXRgrCem7F6iGWyuL2i

● 南怀仁KjVhZTBmNzljMGQ5M2Q=

KjVhZTBmNzljMGRhYzQ=

顺治十六年(1659年)a5eb9cf36c5178c4c828308cbb71c2b2cf8f4c74,南怀仁来华677a9a3b60c3a52712b0c8c5bd0fdfbb11e70672,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监07f60671a63591d042d63e361e331d54301e911b,后升任工部右侍郎MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHmqqyuL2i6b9ce03a583518d3487c3dcd6f5b189f9ffa92e0

康熙九年JjVhZTBmNzljMTM4MDc=,也就是1670年3290cb048e23582d081a36e5cc6189e6b7237099,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计41b16b2850365ccc7de54acc17b5b5e187004f7d,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》XjVhZTBmNzljMTczMzM=3bc4391dcfe869d0ef5f5cc380cb5a2f16f0bc74

1c30992d82329d8e9470e3b5273904de

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgrCem7GHhZyw27Wi,球内空气热胀冷缩时MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHhZ29tc-i,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降JTVhZTBmNzljMTNmOWE=,U形管一共有十个刻度QDVhZTBmNzljMTc0YTk=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgrCem7F6iaC8tb2i

a12a3e157fea49c593eb244045da7ffbeb1ff8e7

和伽利略温度计一样39cd77cccd9487b934710658a4175094,这种空气温度计并不精确b11034d699b7b36c0c2d21d390a0cc3c,但是对于当时的中国人来说JTVhZTBmNzljMTQ0MDU=,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了XjVhZTBmNzljMTc2MTA=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7F6jKyxy72i

926564448fd1f1d0b6df66bb372c33f099a9082f

KjVhZTBmNzljMGU2MmU=

3e5b8d9cd629a926cc80f9ff4dddb6b1

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgrCem7F6jGa9pami

bb38302249619bd7ce227733d86a3d54

● 南怀仁制作的温度计237bcba362b94a9d10ead77131af190c618454a5

十年后d5795591af7610cf9ede28fdd947d09e093520ad,更精确的法国原装进口温度计32283b3b27d2690232cbbe2db47c82a8a74e4e8b,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝77b91f74cfcf6410cb46ad37e12c7f63JjVhZTBmNzljMGVjZGM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRgrCem7F6jZ6w26mi

1689年康熙南巡69d2d2b3698822fccd507507738d7404,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫c52a6881a2814bd06acddee4a0cecbf477192539,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHiZuxzrGi献上西洋方物12种abcb28f4fb465a7f605cfa0df57f70f0XjVhZTBmNzljMGYwMmE=

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里ITVhZTBmNzljMTRkMTI=7cbb01096f1fa4ddc35514d761f0048a87ba3fe5

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6QtqXRgrCem7F6kKu9y7Gi

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyXg41_qbJ6iGawyKGi,余物退回MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHmmixqL2i93d261d9c3f1a79f0baed48f6363397d

0c3088f859c4a8585a58589622e84676

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHiZ-9tcui,万岁爷要收下JTVhZTBmNzljMTUxNzI=,奈途次难带f88b70295f712f2435e64e751ec5ebfd,先生往后遇便送至京师”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHm5u827mi63b33201113e513a80f7d7be51063680d540264a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6QtqXRgrCem7F6kGa8k6mi

NWFlMGY3OWMwZmE2NQ==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyXg41_qL6gfZ2w2KGi

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyXg41_qL6ghGOx2KGi

2e6ca276831cad81acf716f6f0875b52be8bb263

1690年2月MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6QtqXRgrCem7GHjK2w262i,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿57be93ee3689c5c4373cecb87613a84aJjVhZTBmNzljMTAwNGY=

NWFlMGY3OWMxMDFkMQ==

成为康熙的日常爱用品a81add23b881a581101d3a2a6492aaebNWFlMGY3OWMxMDM0OA==

IzVhZTBmNzljMTA0YmQ=

至于它们在民间的普及XjVhZTBmNzljMTU3M2E=,则是二十世纪以后的事情了MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QftKDqbyXg41_qbJliZ6w2KGiJDVhZTBmNzljMTA2MzM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6QtqXRgrCem7GHeGWypb2i

JjVhZTBmNzljMTA5MDY=

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