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从穷人家庭逆袭福布斯榜,ZARA创始人怎么做到千亿身家的?

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很多人在抱怨没钱的时候都会怪自己不是个富二代8f78b6601c9c982582a5ed06917c61b5,经常有种错觉就是“我爸要是全国首富MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdjaCxtb2i,我的事业肯定也会成功01be9cfc47ffb93a589f3676415e08cb。”05452a6c278da2a31649d80ee8932c15c22b15b7

d1c3f225990a4d1a2a3b82ab7be142b4c2410e45

XjVhODkzY2FiMWU3NjI=

5dacfac4dc93cab80b36f08d352b83d09752e68c

可是735d71415521b111d10ef1cdb6d3af83,有个世界知名的服装品牌e7b0d955ed3eb6b1490e1dd50215dacb,创始人就是个穷二代7531f719fb81e2796d837eee8f78d24c,他凭借自己的智慧努力2b9eb26698dd736cbbd33cce4a6c75990c5e829e,成功占据福布斯全球富豪榜Top5IzVhODkzY2FiMmI1ZmE=。所以11503767aaea9cfae0b531efd74c63a65cc27a77,他是怎么做到的?JjVhODkzY2FiMWVhMDE=

XjVhODkzY2FiMWViNDk=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGKjZyytbWi

55dac698f814e1b35100c595689558915c2b16b7

你一定听说过服装业巨头——ZARAXjVhODkzY2FiMjY4MDM=,但你知道ZARA之父奥特加吗?MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGKjZ-wuLWi

他出身贫寒JTVhODkzY2FiMjY5NDM=,父亲是铁道工人68cd0397fc89c659224c28d2429f50b6,母亲是一名佣人MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdkZu8k7Wi,穷二代奥特加13岁便到了一家裁缝铺当学徒MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtrHOjY17qr2dkGSxoqGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGKjaCxuLWi

可谁能想到QDVhODkzY2FiMjZkMGM=,就是这样一个穷裁缝在几十年后缔造了ZARA的商业帝国5f2b3ef579daa25a309ad855ab9f2287,并连续多年蝉联福布斯全球富豪榜Top5ba623585e218002393f2f90c2087b752bfbb966dKjVhODkzY2FiMWYxYTg=

IzVhODkzY2FiMWYyZWE=

a435e70a74d5807aa54610bd5349abd6

1f20c8f0116bc70ce7795033797bdfe40f92a318

纵观富豪榜的前几名KjVhODkzY2FiMjZmYjI=,绝大部分都来自于IT、互联网等新兴行业443c4c7ce35659562457493841a8198e7933d4e2,而奥特加却来自最传统的服装业XjVhODkzY2FiMmJhMTk=56811231ddd867753fbeac5da96302ff

他是如何通过卖衣服积累千亿身家的?中欧国际工商学院运营管理学教授兼中欧Global EMBA课程主任倪科斯为你揭秘XjVhODkzY2FiMmJiN2I=70b3d0568d243a7d95b5ec0fbb448bc5645af0a0

JDVhODkzY2FiMWY5NDE=

8fdca360d0884468fb4ffa58d4cb9ea83099592c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGKkZu8k62i

105f12003963d4ac2ea02bf0ea6a0e4bf6fdc0f1

· 温馨提示 ·MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGKkZ6xpcei

没有Wi-Fi的同学可以移步下方看图文版MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGKkZ-yqL2i

视频链接MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGKkaC8k72i

c4786be3ad9fc91d255c3d12da195aacd5751705

以下为图文版MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdeKyxtami

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdeK2ytaWi

ZARA最大的杀手锏就是:快!69b11756aa882fb2c22f7ac75ad80144

首先ITVhODkzY2FiMjcyN2E=,在服装行业MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdmqy9pami,从设计、采购到生产整个过程5ae703a978b4730818f456ed4abef087,通常要经历6到9个月的时间fc11fb4197339fff361bc06f56d75d26fd4d3099,单是设计的环节26ed692a4a62d37ff6dbe078dc7dbec4,就要花费两三个月IzVhODkzY2FiMmJjZGE=ITVhODkzY2FiMjA3MTQ=

而ZARA完成这个流程JDVhODkzY2FiMjc5OWQ=,只需要2个星期175925cfd84ca66eeff464ec69e0de5799f37df8b8dbedb8285c564e8a6f94b026e68ea2328ce685

JDVhODkzY2FiMjA5OTE=

NWE4OTNjYWIyMGFkYQ==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdeZywy7Wi

拿物流来举例8085d5ebf9f0e1506976f7672fcc365b,ZARA选择空运而不是传统的航运MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdm5yxtc-i,这样可以保证产品迅速到达店面cd63e0c9ca09cdeae619b881330a2a74,从西班牙工厂到达世界各地仅需36-72小时IzVhODkzY2FiMmJmN2Y=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdeZ2xy62i

也就是说JDVhODkzY2FiMjdmNjQ=,你此刻穿在身上的ZARA或许36小时前还在西班牙16535b004c590885ffa72395cbfb816200077b5d5dcf9355b4570451accbadf7ea33f0c5

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdeZ-9uKmi

IzVhODkzY2FiMjExMzI=

da48874c13900e7b72d025f3d66c938b17a0d43e

另外0119ed63257ac2ddbdefe2bc1b446262,ZARA通过大数据JTVhODkzY2FiMjgyNGU=,将从门店里采集到的顾客的反馈信息及时传送给总部的设计师5078760dc4c209f48fae8c099dbcf942a5283913,设计师则依据顾客的反馈IzVhODkzY2FiMjg1MWU=,迅速做出顺应市场的改变MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGghKuw28eiXjVhODkzY2FiMjEzYjk=

JTVhODkzY2FiMjE0Zjc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtrHOjY17qrGHjGO82KGi

JTVhODkzY2FiMjE3ODc=

快速反应机制为ZARA带来了大量的资金MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtrHOjY17qrN3jGa9oqGi,那些经常光顾门店的顾客即是ZARA的银行237bc46a12e12fef29c42ee10c6ec8ad,他们的现金源源不断地流向了公司总部2768e5e3e105eab0fe7c889193cf5fa2f9a930feb9cb5045e1f9b24a1d6c9c0dbd6008f6

杀手锏2:不比成本MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdnmextc-i,比灵活59b70ad0be116651345987a2f2542d172ab2190b

让我们再来看一件反传统的事07d2cbffcd42598477354aeb67f561c934e1d724。一般服装企业的毛利会比较高c870f4047f988d868f746607bad2a867bfae14b4,但是通常净利润都很少MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGghGSxpbGi。钱都到哪里去了?IzVhODkzY2FiMjFiNTU=

因为通常企业在做市场预测时要考虑到供需平衡——76373aedeba53042a67b7bb782182ef5

当预测大于需求时MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdn5ywzq2i,产品过剩MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdn52yqL2i,最终存货就会以打折方式来处理;而当预测小于需求时MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdn569y72i,又会损失销售JTVhODkzY2FiMmM3YTM=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdfZ29tc-i

企业需要在这两者之间做平衡MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdn6Cw28ei,而大部分企业总是会比市场需求多生产一些产品76aabfd3002e84be5a124797bc4fb5baQDVhODkzY2FiMjFmMjc=

KjVhODkzY2FiMjIwNDI=

XjVhODkzY2FiMjIxYWQ=

QDVhODkzY2FiMjIzMTE=

但ZARA却不考虑这些MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGghGixtcui。每个产品都以小批量的方式生产JTVhODkzY2FiMjkxNzE=,所以它的存货极少886cec1e59da1db9f2cf7bcfb1c9b3c25fac1c214ffaf89de5cf2bbb43c26fbb

它总是不断地进入新的设计周期MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdoqu8zrGi,甚至可以做到一周2次新货上架MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdoq2wpc-i,让顾客频繁地光顾门店5ce06b4d561063b7a5deb2898f5c1fc9f39360fa,降低预测与实际需求之间的差距4be66b3414cfd8ee41d945cb0510545eITVhODkzY2FiMjI1ZWE=

2057cd561fcdd0e3c51bffde7dd925dd

2dc86a1c995364a45b4a737dbcdca3805146a83e

17082268c32f7a2c795e68111315a8c7ce766e75

谁说企业必须靠低成本竞争?!87b225265a8700df5c31b60318a32c5c

ZARA物流上选择相对昂贵的空运而不是航运MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdomSytbmi,就已经说明了一切f589cba1283d1b1fc2995bb5c670720dMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtrHOjY17qrGggZ69yKGi

另外NWE4OTNjYWIyOTdkNA==,ZARA 49%的供应商都来自欧洲KjVhODkzY2FiMjk5MTQ=,而非东南亚等人力成本较低的国家NWE4OTNjYWIyY2ZkOA==9354618bde37458c8115d6515b7f90b6

ab09bda30a832bb70ac1a6eb0cbcd597

2daf7a591a4e404e1565438edb418938805d4b4a

ITVhODkzY2FiMjMyYTA=

ZARA为什么不按常规出牌?如此高的运营成本643f1bfce34932b6848c076e68367c06,又如何赚钱?65d94620d1d2d09f47079487dea5431854ac499e

  - 由于极大地缩短了供应链流程以及对市场反应迅速593c41e1b041b93219000acdaef5b1d8,ZARA的存货非常少XjVhODkzY2FiMmQxM2I=IzVhODkzY2FiMjM1Njc=

  - 其次49ccd2d44f2887d692df6eae52d9fae5d9cea179,它用在广告上的费用特别低MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdo56xpbWi,只有销售额的0.3%JDVhODkzY2FiMjlmODg=,而这个行业的平均数字是3~4%JTVhODkzY2FiMmQyOGM=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdhGS8zq2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtrHOjY17qrGtmqyxsqGi

JDVhODkzY2FiMjM5YTI=

IzVhODkzY2FiMjNiMDQ=

从运营管理的角度来看2c23265a44231a2bbf20d0c641fc0c6c97347e24,企业的竞争力往往从四个方面考虑:成本、质量、速度和灵活度c2695079bb6c38ca04cc42d86dae8b29ITVhODkzY2FiMjNjNjU=

而ZARA的成功给我们最大的启发是:JDVhODkzY2FiMjNkYzg=

不是所有的公司都需要通过低成本去竞争9318d29859923a94f982e7832c9da64f801ffba7,ZARA就选择了比拼速度和灵活度42f7d0c35f1b40dbf125b7fca14ea5d1969f7fc86ff09dc160cd66042d57188984fea568

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdhaCypa2i

08f06dd43e87ba0d710c14893138b48e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdiKyxy62i

在过去MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGgfKyxy7Wi,“中国制造”靠的是低成本MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGgiGSyqLGi。然而随着中国人力成本逐渐上升、人口红利渐渐消失MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGgfK28y7Gi,中国企业也可以考虑从另外三个方面去提升竞争优势MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGgiGW9qLmib6f5d9239589316a2ea7d22cc11b88bc

而值得注意的是ce66c5bc798c82e104e424aaf92b5e9e533773fd,中国的人力成本虽然在上升7c6812414baa24d4e626dfe94d6a8462ee5efd5b,但中国市场的需求也在上升07649b7ec412dbe444f9f0707e10e1e1,国内的市场越来越火爆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGgfGe9qK2i,从Madein China到Made for ChinaMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGgfZuwzr2i,中国企业应该适时做这样一个转变了e0e03ebe46ffc2eadbda6cb3969397a318175885ITVhODkzY2FiMjQ2NGM=

3c862449cec6848ca4d2ea4f97877eca62a16223

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdiGewpbGi

a9069ba61d1a45be9a7b38813be53309

原因很简单:MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdiZu9pbGi

当经济快速发展的时候ITVhODkzY2FiMmFjOWE=,人们通常会忽略运营管理ITVhODkzY2FiMmFkZWY=,更加注重去开拓市场;但当经济下行时94bb919e7f8f2e47073ad6f99ae9d10cd1684284,人们会更关注如何提高效率a088aff68c41352a76ea022e9164ba93e48eedd9,降低成本MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGgiGiyta2iQDVhODkzY2FiMjRkMzQ=

这个时候JTVhODkzY2FiMmIxZTc=,需要的是不断调整策略以及优化自己的流程03b3e62a092232f421b7818d179700c1。此时对于中国企业来说QDVhODkzY2FiMmIzMzk=,“运营管理”将变得更加重要MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGgiZ2w28ui。‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍KjVhODkzY2FiMjRlODI=

JDVhODkzY2FiMjRmYjY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdjKqwpc-i

JTVhODkzY2FiMjUyNDA=

03809a5efd126b00ac8250db416b874cffa94c15

本节目由中欧国际工商学院提供智慧支持MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdjK29pcei

1539d3416c44ccf83461dda68b9a545f75f15a6e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs6Fps7ejWh4mrGdjGWxuLmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js6Fps7ejWh4mrGdjGayuLWi

ENDfc104ad54460c2bd7abda2739062a39534a30138

301c2de7cc85e55eefddb82aa8a0e81f814dac4f

dc05413c891821d802c33d1df0211132677c45ad

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QfZqFtrHOjY17qrKKhZ2xoqGi

 

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