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从穷人家庭逆袭福布斯榜,ZARA创始人怎么做到千亿身家的?

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd2E3LSUg42MmrKgiGew2KGi

很多人在抱怨没钱的时候都会怪自己不是个富二代1ea451537e3368ead2c06fe947d5e8f0,经常有种错觉就是“我爸要是全国首富MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2gkGawqLWi,我的事业肯定也会成功QDViMDc0NDlmYzUxOWE=。”cc61dd93b8da427b0b8fcf00a4f55e3dc3182080

JDViMDc0NDlmYjcxNjM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DpsaUgnqenr2dmqu8y6Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd2E3LSUg42MmrKthKuwyKGi

可是33814217630dbe9c97ff6949d9e0e129,有个世界知名的服装品牌MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DpsaUgnqenr2gkGi827Wi,创始人就是个穷二代85fd57b241cdb565e6b23b42c49e139f,他凭借自己的智慧努力96a4c56b813cda32f773bb3918d6a182,成功占据福布斯全球富豪榜Top5MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DpsaUgnqenr2tjKu9uLGi。所以QDViMDc0NDlmYmZlZWI=,他是怎么做到的?ITViMDc0NDlmYjc1OWU=

6a260eaed5f65dfd917c5592f6e7e96beb23c384

343641db85c4022a92be3a8007edeb5cb3aacbd2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DpsaUgnqenr2dmme9pa2i

你一定听说过服装业巨头——ZARAe93c5fbe1404c1f714c219981cf729f4,但你知道ZARA之父奥特加吗?f3cb5a6572dc84d009fa63521b6870ab94e3e227

他出身贫寒MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-DpsaUgnqenr2teKqyqLWi,父亲是铁道工人MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd2E3LSUg42Mm7F3faCxsqGi,母亲是一名佣人XjViMDc0NDlmYzA0NGI=,穷二代奥特加13岁便到了一家裁缝铺当学徒2e62c8d11b2e71c8c08c3f31a9969ca3d2e49661c620abb98cc1a4343598f0994605c62ef6754e20

可谁能想到628e3437e73b962b9c9c807db3d0852306968977,就是这样一个穷裁缝在几十年后缔造了ZARA的商业帝国08214690b2b1cfa40851927cf4c41ecb,并连续多年蝉联福布斯全球富豪榜Top58cc2af48f6ca905a3b6210db174416cd1b8618fa6deaa0a20e6c7b1946f56f55e5d28af270f203bb

XjViMDc0NDlmYjdmNzE=

cf83d05078aeacdbe2385ac882251754

KjViMDc0NDlmYjgyM2U=

纵观富豪榜的前几名MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2teGaxuLGi,绝大部分都来自于IT、互联网等新兴行业MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DpsaUgnqenr2teGe9ta2i,而奥特加却来自最传统的服装业9406f9e253188c1f25c0409c77f8616210a8517fee906d64555131cfbd7837f66882428f

他是如何通过卖衣服积累千亿身家的?中欧国际工商学院运营管理学教授兼中欧Global EMBA课程主任倪科斯为你揭秘fe57d6571bf58a8ff6d9bb05a9957d07MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2dnq29uLmi

XjViMDc0NDlmYjg2Njk=

JjViMDc0NDlmYjg3YjY=

JTViMDc0NDlmYjg5MGY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DpsaUgnqenr2dnmixuK2i

· 温馨提示 ·MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2dn5u8y62i

没有Wi-Fi的同学可以移步下方看图文版JjViMDc0NDlmYjhkMzE=

视频链接XjViMDc0NDlmYjhlOWI=

fac34123c7029b807ad611c30508df4173d6d8d8

以下为图文版MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2doqqwk72i

1948dd5763a03ae36f74f89ae0cfba501b9fd1bf

ZARA最大的杀手锏就是:快!4bf9b71247ac986c378eb127a80bb038

首先283dc28ce2d88b7ee47c5b55d7adbff8,在服装行业d6088046558bf8771480139bf5cd1c9a5a17ea07,从设计、采购到生产整个过程JDViMDc0NDlmYzBkZmE=,通常要经历6到9个月的时间7f6f4c6bdb6d3730e86ce6d6601b7f4c,单是设计的环节MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-DpsaUgnqenr2teaCyuKmi,就要花费两三个月XjViMDc0NDlmYzVhNGU=48c601a97ead74def07697bb1acf6de019298c27

而ZARA完成这个流程MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tfKq9zqmi,只需要2个星期MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tjZu8taWi9d0678d4eb33a54e08844e3d6ba98787438a7f33

b188ba7bcd04d16e270ec7fdb4a39144

08939a9dfe6dc12ae3155263caf1492a

ec1ad2c535fd34dac160854bcb2b45b5c34ec38f

拿物流来举例MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tfKyxtaWi,ZARA选择空运而不是传统的航运NWIwNzQ0OWZjMTRiNw==,这样可以保证产品迅速到达店面af5f5dfcc9617ab0dd7da5a6f9ff4f76,从西班牙工厂到达世界各地仅需36-72小时IzViMDc0NDlmYzVkNDA=0742c0e3ab9f5245bc00d0c661774c05

也就是说ad35d017522756499a742606fa493c95,你此刻穿在身上的ZARA或许36小时前还在西班牙d89e0c95e36faf937b82a7a6705d53cba1a37966c38e149e96f84d86fabf4d17019f36da

e7d33a12f9de28c8109804938c8271006466650d

972dd68acc171e985dc19e881ab369aa1f714945

70add4dcb2a082da66c40579a00d46c8

另外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tfGa9pbWi,ZARA通过大数据MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tfGiwzqmi,将从门店里采集到的顾客的反馈信息及时传送给总部的设计师41a2c80740db999c637bf2722f717a22,设计师则依据顾客的反馈b5c279db2281d5c19cd4d78f2b469b71,迅速做出顺应市场的改变MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tjZ-9zrGi7faaab09865cc78e98453a546c4e0f26

JjViMDc0NDlmYmE0Yzc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-DpsaUgnqenr2gfGSwtbWi

2140c7cdeb263459e29623e148422aca2dea8046

快速反应机制为ZARA带来了大量的资金MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DpsaUgnqenr2tfZ6xtbmi,那些经常光顾门店的顾客即是ZARA的银行3ab4561e0136cd0c12d746a10513fc8e,他们的现金源源不断地流向了公司总部956e3bce135c1d5e16ef55d76cf45847XjViMDc0NDlmYmE4Zjg=

杀手锏2:不比成本MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DpsaUgnqenr2tgKqwuLGi,比灵活MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DpsaUgnqenr2gfGixqLmi

让我们再来看一件反传统的事MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tkKu9uKmi。一般服装企业的毛利会比较高MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tgKuypbWi,但是通常净利润都很少07be6c38d934481e0a785793454bb4a3cea5dfd5。钱都到哪里去了?d908112903c87b6d216c3abc8193d89c

因为通常企业在做市场预测时要考虑到供需平衡——7620df85eff30faa6abc9ec234a1d303d3b6555b

当预测大于需求时7c177222b6c4ac5fbe8b10d790e9f9c0c948130c,产品过剩MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tgGOyuLGi,最终存货就会以打折方式来处理;而当预测小于需求时XjViMDc0NDlmYzI3NDg=,又会损失销售2ca5bd486b6d5b6788f804c4e46f37d8ec9add08bc63077b1c59e2fe5910baa3

企业需要在这两者之间做平衡8ecaea138566ea03e0277fc9f962dbe6,而大部分企业总是会比市场需求多生产一些产品1e592300fae427c064d7c4fa5b44febe8cd346214f9e001ef4d463ab50990093

c471f7354811d5de5505a2ca7a6f7de6f7fa73f2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ggKyxy7Gi

e3cceff59bfa83d76dbe1b81ec2ffcb5

但ZARA却不考虑这些MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tkGa9pbGi。每个产品都以小批量的方式生产0c6e393779baea0e0687a360491ae9f6,所以它的存货极少4c228b93d7cb6fca56293fa168e7ebb06b946294ITViMDc0NDlmYmI2OGE=

它总是不断地进入新的设计周期373f82d23aa2787feca05f94e76a6952,甚至可以做到一周2次新货上架5fc57719be290fa55e2fa428dafe263a,让顾客频繁地光顾门店aa8c823e3d5fc8309638bfe0613f96f2,降低预测与实际需求之间的差距3b6e7615a7292345ef65e37848ad17df43cdc395900a7114e4f2ff667cd83602

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd2E3LSUg42Mmr2dnmawoqGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ggGi9y7mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ggZyxzr2i

谁说企业必须靠低成本竞争?!MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ggZ29uLWi

ZARA物流上选择相对昂贵的空运而不是航运MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tgZ-9y7mi,就已经说明了一切MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tkZ2wtb2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ggZ-x26Wi

另外ca5ffb1f82c8e537b8f88e94a85ca59f,ZARA 49%的供应商都来自欧洲MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2thKu9pami,而非东南亚等人力成本较低的国家c56abc67823ce6b3c15095db1135690e86c2ac6b6aa2a4983f51e4a0f3f6b0c50ccb34c0ad299989

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ghKux272i

JTViMDc0NDlmYmM0MDg=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ghGOxtbmi

ZARA为什么不按常规出牌?如此高的运营成本3266e7db75fc47c43fa848550016427a9a0ee473,又如何赚钱?eaa3f6d519ff3db860ae29fce192eb537075886b

  - 由于极大地缩短了供应链流程以及对市场反应迅速MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-DpsaUgnqenr2thGO828-i,ZARA的存货非常少MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tkZ-9y7miJjViMDc0NDlmYmM4M2Y=

  - 其次713d4c8852ad49b9918e76a634a062c4,它用在广告上的费用特别低678b5e7a1f82927547f92715169d4d25f3f28966,只有销售额的0.3%cb46b8f8ab7e30d8e2e6dcf97f3e049c,而这个行业的平均数字是3~4%dfaa97fb525c634f92cf44103e13202a84e5cf03MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ghGeytbmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd2E3LSUg42Mmr1lfKu82KGi

KjViMDc0NDlmYmNjYzI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DpsaUgnqenr2ghZ6wtcei

从运营管理的角度来看1af310402146988d4ff21f2d9b84bbe5,企业的竞争力往往从四个方面考虑:成本、质量、速度和灵活度4f9208f13153c7f5d0cd06760556ea7eIzViMDc0NDlmYmNmYjU=

而ZARA的成功给我们最大的启发是:MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DpsaUgnqenr2giKqwqK2i

不是所有的公司都需要通过低成本去竞争83f98ec5fc0e1af750ac5e6bd3db9d2d33ad24af,ZARA就选择了比拼速度和灵活度bef8bcbc03cff984563a85e57193d51b92c7c6e1553bb4ad885be5e908bd8c7ff41cc50e

8888094f8fa4550534c5cdee2dc42f1738cc374a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DpsaUgnqenr2giGOyqLWi

0dd3eb03f7a6a4c120216739cb406e87cdcdb68b

在过去JTViMDc0NDlmYzNlOTI=,“中国制造”靠的是低成本XjViMDc0NDlmYzc1ZDc=。然而随着中国人力成本逐渐上升、人口红利渐渐消失34e8ab139da8941f5df9b11712a1c4273f2e3f1a,中国企业也可以考虑从另外三个方面去提升竞争优势JDViMDc0NDlmYzc3NDA=4cec4326ce77065cd7500c6ad3459a33

而值得注意的是aaac2dcccc4ef6b852deed23ffda56c2,中国的人力成本虽然在上升MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tiKu9pbGi,但中国市场的需求也在上升MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tiK2xpbmi,国内的市场越来越火爆3c9652f3bbd71f062ba5e0920c73b065,从Madein China到Made for China1907691496090081dc201e88f7e6bda9088eec7f,中国企业应该适时做这样一个转变了0419e8c0e6498a00d9073317fcc5c03a20e97de29896d9d6712f272c9eb18a56a9edffd5d2b597d5

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd2E3LSUg42Mmr56fZuyoqGi

171b6b7d5ea730006ddb3ba15fa8f9c7d80beeeb

7f3f398816907f7382dc6b6b866ea73402b3502d

原因很简单:652c41ec5c25389a9e85e2af9a347242ab4765c1

当经济快速发展的时候MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd2E3LSUg42Mm7J3m52wyKGi,人们通常会忽略运营管理MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DpsaUgnqenr2tiGiw262i,更加注重去开拓市场;但当经济下行时IzViMDc0NDlmYzRiYzE=,人们会更关注如何提高效率c6a62443fea59d587831d931a195d9e1,降低成本950069428f21e3915ae881e28800b4b331a407d18bd2580e938ccca6a50a1835

这个时候921917a7c06886cb5c446dc4f76c0f71,需要的是不断调整策略以及优化自己的流程JTViMDc0NDlmYzdiOTU=。此时对于中国企业来说ITViMDc0NDlmYzUwMjE=,“运营管理”将变得更加重要309fdd0cbee89d94ae532bbc30bf31b3c7b90941。‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍22c7c0cd67339a34f0aa7c0ae7d08de1

QDViMDc0NDlmYmU0ZDk=

XjViMDc0NDlmYmU2NTY=

fd265ba5a05f359b991d74b0548b90f9213f5a51

43741905e9e9a2a68810468357b3bcff

本节目由中欧国际工商学院提供智慧支持aac8831279c508899089c6c99e0333cd

16def21ba2799a610d69cae9df5bffd7

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DpsaUgnqenr2gjZ28tbWi

JjViMDc0NDlmYmVmNTM=

ENDc1b9b4e0c52ca3a3c93156a1e2f42646

d7e82dd20b4beac355ed88f28e8b78c3

b4176f654a59af2d8a5b0ba3c022ab38545a1896

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DpsaUgnqenr2gkGOwy6mi

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