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古人夏天用的冰从哪来?

想必大家都见过这样的镜头MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdgZyypaWi,古装剧里MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdgZ2yuK2i,炎炎夏日ITViMmViYmJiMjJlOGI=,皇帝的房间里竟然摆上了冰块MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdgZ-8k72i,这并不是什么脑洞大开的神镜头MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdgaC9tb2i,事实上MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdhKq9zrGi,在古代e1f819e344158a8294cc0f034e0371e562bf0369,不仅皇帝能在夏天用冰JDViMmViYmJiMjM0MGM=,一些王公大臣也能在夏天搞到些冰块之类的消暑用品MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdkGextami。他们的冰块是从哪儿来的?用冰块怎样消暑?制冷效果如何呢?下面小编带大家一探究竟:15591dfe0ccba88e1100e48072ae896708bcc57d

8dd950f97f560199e52cdc428fea0c0d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGKkKyw26Wi

b5019cbc694f0f41b28fa020fc903cd4

99b162e7039cb9e94c28d07e5fdd8948abd44bd9

e59f0fb69ec3d843ebf4b5d91f930f9c

KjViMmViYmJiMWY3MzU=

用具:早在先秦时期815d8f98e92b6801d77830ee8e19a547aff4a192,古人即开始用冰消暑3f2522931d6a1e80b28e5b966d216de477014f08,那时2df000ffb4aa5c930e0e18093038589c6a6f5c0b,他们用的工具叫冰鉴706408c7747b8f40eb4fe21e6fc540b93f6f0595。是用木制或青铜制造的箱子ITViMmViYmJiMjM4N2Q=,大口小底33ae8267666569ae41cd5d4b134a3b03687956dd,底部有直径很小的排水口MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdhGi9qLWi,可在冰融化后直接排出冷水7a13e3491dc6dd6117fbd889367119e0a79d94f1,以供使用ff01c50b48536b4dca998fba95440f2ab769ad5cITViMmViYmJiMWY4NGE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGKkGeytami

如何存冰?MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-Qua3NjaN7qb6do5uxsqGi

“凌人”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdhZ2wtaWi,每年 12 月、1 月都要带领下属到江面、湖面上采冰7b66d8be25635bc1c0b8c143b5537e47fc0b8dca,封存在阴凉处的冰窖里0bc49279753272d0eb807f608ce49b9b,配备树叶等隔热材料MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdhaCxy8ei,以备夏季使用67eb57e0dc90e11dc8bde931bc7d0069。由于保存环境、方法的限制NWIyZWJiYmIyNDE1OA==,这些窖冰的三分之二都会在使用前自行融化13e63a35870ada1eb7c8c3de3a961151d673041d,因此储冰者需打好提前量NWIyZWJiYmIyNDM5Mg==,采集远远多于需求量的冰块7f0151068d5806b2428fe0f21276641b55a00d35,才能满足宫廷需求1ea4a37362ca45a8287aedfef972203ed469587dJTViMmViYmJiMWZiODE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGKkZy8262i

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MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGKkZ-9uK2i

6df3ab30db193b031033971eea0899fc945ff157

 如何制造?MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-Qua3NjaN7qrF3fKuwsqGi

在采冰、藏冰、用冰等方面MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdiGO9y62i,清代都有其独特的管理流程JDViMmViYmJiMjZlYTU=。每年北京水道结冰前MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdiGWwqLmi,要先放水“涮河”817c249b006b770c3991015e87dcff5c,去掉水中的杂草d3a53aa8c0d3d2f52c903c1dc9d6e9ea。约到冬至时开始采第一批冰MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdiGewk6mi,待水面再次结冻之后再采第二批f0fce5c83e2f546009e1bdc5210eedab。如此反复92a771992f71eb58e097d76bcb9346fc,每年冬天大概能采到五批冰4bbdf471e2599bede74dc7bc5487b565e88693ac203144fa8647f078c9929740bfc2dbf7

JDViMmViYmJiMjAzZmE=

如何搬运?NWIyZWJiYmIyMDUxNA==

为保证冰的质量77c2c8decb56669f07f9573d8ba87c21,防止冰块从窖口掉落到窖底时摔得不成样子JjViMmViYmJiMjRjNWU=,窖内会设置专门搬运冰块的冰板IzViMmViYmJiMjRkN2E=,待冰到了窖口642d1deebba1875411d5a851db0daa35,便将冰板一头支在窖口2d78dd1658cc5add8e340567a0c4db25,一头支在窖底1cde98e8a9908cfe453ca227817d6c7409264875,形成一个斜面IzViMmViYmJiMjUxZWE=,让冰块滑下去JTViMmViYmJiMjUzMDg=,再由窖里的工作人员码放整齐be518bac99510fb7abbcb7e6b8fe4d3bff76baea。 ITViMmViYmJiMjA2MjM=

b3bf060a9cefd50fd2e7ecfe44a597f1cc15ed34

9dd8f9b0cbd608a8ba45096c436c97a5

652d720ee5bac5373ec2e8f6186d4642a9b31f8c

XjViMmViYmJiMjBhNWY=

ca487a8a6b052b6a10245504cb43b5e7bb8eff9d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdeZy8zqmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdeZ28k7mi

早期的冰十分珍贵3aadfd286a8f4d478c5d6d8f6e580beb,更多时候只能选择吹风消暑b63886026e0197ccd2032661619a199c9e1caa8c5d36c2099ca6dd120392de24

JTViMmViYmJiMjBmOTM=

8b3b50884f5e21ef7172c3e56a04d561

XjViMmViYmJiMjExYzk=

QDViMmViYmJiMjEyZTE=

48f6264f31dc18aa7fbba6d7fe04b5c9be3e105f

 汉朝末年坐拥“冰井台”的储冰大户曹操MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdjGOxy7Gi,即常将冰块作为珍贵物品赏赐给下属e9110a0cd43a014451df48fe47d7fd38。汉代长乐宫凌室遗址XjViMmViYmJiMjc2MjA=。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdfGOwk62i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdfGSxtcui

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdfGWxzrmi

c408b2d0024b0e4916b595ceaa9f9bd5cdb7b5a7

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-Qua3NjaN7qrGHn5u82KGi

63962ad125ab03d20ae9401e4393d4094ef8b4f5

IzViMmViYmJiMjFiYjQ=

 到了明清时期JDViMmViYmJiMjU2NTU=,冰制品就更普及了4ee73736c71353719b1abbc4506d74118e74443d。以储冰量最大的顺治年间为例JDViMmViYmJiMjU3NmM=,官方冰窖的年储量可达 208621 块冰JTViMmViYmJiMjU4ODI=,乘以单块冰的重量(约 100 公斤)71422d7ffe8d9696406225d151f689e298b67a80,总重可达 20000 多吨09a4afe7095721db9f51c5c6fe85d034c15e117d。即使在藏冰量最少的雍正年间98a6900cbc473a7877b2ea5381ba69853e8222b5,官方储量也有一年 9000 吨左右1d4f71cb4413f6413a36f99186bf2196。 22f1080c7ba71b98592738700aca5741

d0bd716754cf84cbd21fc6ec23f88d53848773d2

NWIyZWJiYmIyMWYwZg==

XjViMmViYmJiMjIwMzI=

034d4680a1facb2fcee81d968d8c5747

cf442c16b6a8d9d9800abfa8112399d2

 清廷储备的冰块除皇室成员使用外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdjZywpb2i,还对各级官员设置“冰票”8a4ee1e6cef2812f843d6640e46e55b7a7017362,凭票供应ceba84a93569e82fa1c77e45ade71b7c54856622。不过JDViMmViYmJiMjVlMjg=,能凭冰票领到的冰数量极少XjViMmViYmJiMjVmM2U=,根本不够使用c7d82728975a5e49c8394e6d254a8384ec9efc36,官员们往往还会到市面上去买冰6bc1d3726eb565fac34839d263943b05。以下图片为清末北京各衙门每日应领冰块数目NWIyZWJiYmIyN2M3NA==。 ITViMmViYmJiMjIzN2E=

e3e0452aaa4f71fa00c25fadecee5dd9

冰的普及a9725d52c50b63277eca4b98b7141e6e4aff4974

不过f8821b31b2204c3d396447c1ee9019d8,唐宋以前JDViMmViYmJiMjYyODI=,冰块过于珍贵b02bfe81803f0b2c7609fafb45b025e6,冰块要真正走向民间MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-Qua3NjaN7qrKdhZ-woqGi,还要等到物质文明丰富的宋朝年间4553d119c84532067c2bfd8585faced06c9bbd69,民间采冰、藏冰乃至出售各种冰制食品的现象屡见不鲜70afa2325a00720cb6e36fb0c989656c。“冰雪冷元子”、“冰雪甘草汤”、“冰雪凉水荔枝膏”、“冰雪细料馉饳儿”等feadac3c98d7a52e59c2cd35d7e81814,都以冰为原料或辅料MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Dz7nNjaN8mrGdkGaw262i,如“冰雪甘草汤”就是用甘草、砂糖等原料熬成汤后加入冰屑而成7914e27cadcd779188bc89cf3d133920。   KjViMmViYmJiMjI2ZDM=

XjViMmViYmJiMjI3ZWE=

NWIyZWJiYmIyMjkwNw==

2f2269e6f019bf2bd1568af600c898ddf533cbcc

0636a3bc5dc51e98ddce524025a5fab439a0d9b7

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