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古人夏天用的冰从哪来?

想必大家都见过这样的镜头ef05fc03d06187c80c51dde8f37bbf4ed3f2f6f7,古装剧里acba93a49657864aaaa3dff78eea77ae,炎炎夏日4cbd66c7b0ef113369e6e1ea1d43f0870c97fb41,皇帝的房间里竟然摆上了冰块04541aa5ad6546d251ed6ff3516a0e8f,这并不是什么脑洞大开的神镜头6a8ca0d2840cfd691fe26f35806ee41626ab8b1e,事实上MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZuypcei,在古代MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZu8taWi,不仅皇帝能在夏天用冰29d8948154f73c4bc8e0db1ac7c6c85f,一些王公大臣也能在夏天搞到些冰块之类的消暑用品XjVjMTY2ZDg4NmYwNTM=。他们的冰块是从哪儿来的?用冰块怎样消暑?制冷效果如何呢?下面小编带大家一探究竟:134c401df19c836d9e96a0500cc57a75

d4a11ba7b39a8ae71e6bbde22831a1495f4031bd

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjK29zrGi

QDVjMTY2ZDg4NmU0MmM=

XjVjMTY2ZDg4NmU0NDY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGOxqKmi

dc0b10330e442f9eb02490f372dbd66e

用具:早在先秦时期273cf77f9fd2fad67d424766c49d71c4,古人即开始用冰消暑179c6d6b2465c5edc2056448edef2db4c5f20f53,那时5f15865ccb67f106ef3f206ae6f08d5c,他们用的工具叫冰鉴MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qhd6EzL3Pg3qZY76deGS9oqGi。是用木制或青铜制造的箱子QDVjMTY2ZDg4NmViNDg=,大口小底KjVjMTY2ZDg4NmViNjE=,底部有直径很小的排水口JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmViODA=,可在冰融化后直接排出冷水0934602d9a9b02ebc3d4a62cbc1964f9bac8a625,以供使用MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgkKqx28uiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGOyqK2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGO8tb2i

如何存冰?MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGO8272i

“凌人”7e006276386bd573226689a903cbcf224496bd2f,每年 12 月、1 月都要带领下属到江面、湖面上采冰QDVjMTY2ZDg4NmViZGQ=,封存在阴凉处的冰窖里c1ba0100ac1ba328b3a1bfb4f66a837da9793d87,配备树叶等隔热材料0b2e13a8e684344766af38fe9cae64ed58e40b74,以备夏季使用d2d92a6007295a3adc69bd96744db91a2f534471。由于保存环境、方法的限制MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ2wtc-i,这些窖冰的三分之二都会在使用前自行融化MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ2w27Gi,因此储冰者需打好提前量MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ2xqLGi,采集远远多于需求量的冰块27a623fbd3c4602b584db681e27fd6e44ebeed82,才能满足宫廷需求JjVjMTY2ZDg4NmYwYzc=6be4880266470f877011f5022694c5dc6131ec54

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGSwpaWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGSwy6Wi

JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmU1NTA=

356b57af5eefd5fc419192d7baf1986a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qhd6EzL3Pg3qZY76HjGawyKGi

 如何制造?f65107297a08c217d564f00901ba04c295fbde9d

在采冰、藏冰、用冰等方面301e741e518b4648af20233eed1e19702572e1a3,清代都有其独特的管理流程7e66d66e0af5e289a88bddf001ee3150。每年北京水道结冰前f3d6ff77f90ba89903d7c70bf869c343,要先放水“涮河”e4b8112f9bd824c82d40f0fde668e6d6,去掉水中的杂草MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgkKq9tbWi。约到冬至时开始采第一批冰MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ6wpami,待水面再次结冻之后再采第二批JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmYxMTk=。如此反复cd8f422f0f78f33ae71eb0b8f57dc030,每年冬天大概能采到五批冰4e57a6522cc9866525ebd9d697eac420cb958bc3c64194e89fcc1d328d9d2400ce7efc50

8c631736ff10156cb3584cdf63c79412c1dc5e35

如何搬运?KjVjMTY2ZDg4NmU2MDA=

为保证冰的质量JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmVkNGE=,防止冰块从窖口掉落到窖底时摔得不成样子084c525a17ccb0a63ccebdda423b3480,窖内会设置专门搬运冰块的冰板MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ6xy72i,待冰到了窖口MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ6ypaWi,便将冰板一头支在窖口MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ6yuL2i,一头支在窖底3b66c1d3af910d539c8caf194d1ef0532e26d2fa,形成一个斜面NWMxNjZkODg2ZWRmZQ==,让冰块滑下去JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmVlMTk=,再由窖里的工作人员码放整齐MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgkKuw272i。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGWwpbWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGWwzrmi

IzVjMTY2ZDg4NmU2NWU=

d759db162ed849a7b9bc5e4bab684d98

9132e7e6a76b961d958fd018c4231c9d4f1869f8

01f3fa4c4f5708f1b48ccaf27c9be36d7f23ece5

416c3712091fced48b7eccd47010a5c869396461

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGW8k72i

早期的冰十分珍贵b279d8550fc21dff7df6088e3f72a06a,更多时候只能选择吹风消暑3cd9aeacc43f524f8c71b15671c80aadd45267ccfd153b027ed4a2ab6f011d01c967661b

QDVjMTY2ZDg4NmU3MWQ=

fb28aaa81b5a45d3008c4e25b9de60d19e3ed417

NWMxNjZkODg2ZTc2MA==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGaxy7Wi

df78ae604a9509e749ed81ed26455e11f0019577

 汉朝末年坐拥“冰井台”的储冰大户曹操f07e81b4072177a7c8258da7b9565ddd4221d472,即常将冰块作为珍贵物品赏赐给下属d94a2ecfc160b8b7e7274209a5803b75。汉代长乐宫凌室遗址3ae7747c78e4b2402d4a708163efb56e28c4bd93。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGaytcei

bd8764d3b84e25b9d8fd30801b33d02e

XjVjMTY2ZDg4NmU3ZTY=

JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmU3ZmY=

JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmU4MWU=

75a8c7ef37a10d636f84d81ff7b2a718

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGexpami

 到了明清时期cd82b4ecc3495ec6a8b24e4b5f1f3863,冰制品就更普及了c09e92544cc427b51dc568ca93648c686481b296。以储冰量最大的顺治年间为例MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ-xzqmi,官方冰窖的年储量可达 208621 块冰d2d7ca07f2bd17b6aee15cba00eb6875,乘以单块冰的重量(约 100 公斤)4e11dd50c8d6ea9d1e8a7161b04511d00e7b8844,总重可达 20000 多吨QDVjMTY2ZDg4NmYxZDc=。即使在藏冰量最少的雍正年间MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjZ-8y72i,官方储量也有一年 9000 吨左右7437de9d4f883b3916206c8f0339017d9be4b200。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGexy6mi

864643cd818497efe2f5cd8789e306d7

JDVjMTY2ZDg4NmU4YjU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGe8y8ui

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGe9pcei

4259948f647910c35bfd633c06a5620518750b38

 清廷储备的冰块除皇室成员使用外MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qhd6EzL3Pg3qZY76KjZ6xsqGi,还对各级官员设置“冰票”JjVjMTY2ZDg4NmVmMGI=,凭票供应XjVjMTY2ZDg4NmYyMTM=。不过XjVjMTY2ZDg4NmVmMzM=,能凭冰票领到的冰数量极少7cc1f817eb2974a553e4d3bc44631886,根本不够使用MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjaCxtaWi,官员们往往还会到市面上去买冰NWMxNjZkODg2ZjIzMg==。以下图片为清末北京各衙门每日应领冰块数目XjVjMTY2ZDg4NmYyNGM=。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGiwqKmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGiwy8-i

冰的普及4a1fafe03e129d8f7ea5f17f519b49d5

不过ba4c2b39e0364f416464efa136fbdd8756479858,唐宋以前418b6d1e2c708f3b95a36992eab5884e8c40a635,冰块过于珍贵6fa90fa65a6b23d120e4eee355d53bbf,冰块要真正走向民间MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjaC9pa2i,还要等到物质文明丰富的宋朝年间70ad9bf6106761e4dfe612ba7b3483689249784c,民间采冰、藏冰乃至出售各种冰制食品的现象屡见不鲜MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgkKyxtaWi。“冰雪冷元子”、“冰雪甘草汤”、“冰雪凉水荔枝膏”、“冰雪细料馉饳儿”等MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgkKqwpbmi,都以冰为原料或辅料MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgkKqwuLmi,如“冰雪甘草汤”就是用甘草、砂糖等原料熬成汤后加入冰屑而成MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjnqZZbKgkKyxzqmi。   a47ac801cdbcd451e912e897e5bbbb1d8c4cff9d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjnqZZbKgjGix272i

38746399f6a81b624f3a4d5ea6e4d2ebae9b524d

e3a94cb3390b5bf0bf50b5f4d02a614d

432ff4a6d6f78c0aa5e89b525170c356

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