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古人夏天用的冰从哪来?

想必大家都见过这样的镜头MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKu8272i,古装剧里ITVjOTdhMTJmNWYxZGY=,炎炎夏日9fda1b736b5ca8a5bfb5375e2585dd1c3020b199,皇帝的房间里竟然摆上了冰块b5b7b19be7345b5573d1d89d958e0f72f768d29a,这并不是什么脑洞大开的神镜头NWM5N2ExMmY1ZjIwOQ==,事实上8b6c465c5cdbd28f225e07b65475bdfe,在古代ce54298ad234b5e415fe17edde454711f18c2ef6,不仅皇帝能在夏天用冰MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKywy72i,一些王公大臣也能在夏天搞到些冰块之类的消暑用品MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGO9pcui。他们的冰块是从哪儿来的?用冰块怎样消暑?制冷效果如何呢?下面小编带大家一探究竟:865b9abe2a4b400ce63938b975170c42

a2bf91e8d7cc57838d01bbf784a8ee24

QDVjOTdhMTJmNWVlYmM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKjZ-8zrmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKjZ-8k7Gi

f1d3bfead2bb135497658e9496db797a3b52eeaa

dbf346ad368c022d827a5adbd6a16ec8

用具:早在先秦时期9cbb7dab91f4a7eb697323cab41e915022b68eec,古人即开始用冰消暑81078f6fc925471221f7dfbb1f043c8f4d29a01e,那时XjVjOTdhMTJmNWYyNTc=,他们用的工具叫冰鉴MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGO9tb2i。是用木制或青铜制造的箱子be2107cbad19cad5ba82dda9cc16ce394c69904c,大口小底5b4e4f9f88774a995b444fd57ef41114b774c3b3,底部有直径很小的排水口KjVjOTdhMTJmNWYyN2Y=,可在冰融化后直接排出冷水MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKyypami,以供使用c9e286141cd7af77bd1773e2a75040d1fdb01d257c175e3154a5c462d32611127c9a171a

1fa837b07fa78aa386d1a10947e89633

如何存冰?5c662dd4bff3fc8c1a50a7a97e744d87b5e2e3d8

“凌人”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKyyta2i,每年 12 月、1 月都要带领下属到江面、湖面上采冰adf2e1bc7e14a77980fabe4fb0dcaaf2840cb559,封存在阴凉处的冰窖里QDVjOTdhMTJmNWYyYjc=,配备树叶等隔热材料MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKy8y8-i,以备夏季使用MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGO9zrmi。由于保存环境、方法的限制0b46ca78d6cf8390e0412987e981bd2c,这些窖冰的三分之二都会在使用前自行融化7e514689a8a0fc35086fa29b95397415,因此储冰者需打好提前量a493a09bdd1f93ef59a94856b1b212ba0b6b59f9,采集远远多于需求量的冰块MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuElKjcgaOLYr6dgaCxoqGi,才能满足宫廷需求MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGSwtami0451cedd90eecfa8757c7ce39715ca00

2c553da58086e3e29ea93ca1756a7c1d

QDVjOTdhMTJmNWVmNTA=

ITVjOTdhMTJmNWVmNWQ=

JDVjOTdhMTJmNWVmNmE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKjaCxzq2i

 如何制造?QDVjOTdhMTJmNWVmODc=

在采冰、藏冰、用冰等方面defb987ce09bee168ef857b743a6b3ae,清代都有其独特的管理流程MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuElKjcgaOLYr6djKyxoqGi。每年北京水道结冰前MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuElKjcgaOLYr6dhKuxyKGi,要先放水“涮河”NWM5N2ExMmY1ZjMzYg==,去掉水中的杂草e2e436e4ebe80635372bd0aa756a8a27。约到冬至时开始采第一批冰eba2ea8be76ada07634ed2a3da5514362570b50c,待水面再次结冻之后再采第二批JjVjOTdhMTJmNWY1NGI=。如此反复JjVjOTdhMTJmNWYzNTY=,每年冬天大概能采到五批冰JjVjOTdhMTJmNWY1NTc=2a7486b35c570fa0a1c7daf429647a85

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKjaCytcei

如何搬运?MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKjaC8tcui

为保证冰的质量MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkK2xtcui,防止冰块从窖口掉落到窖底时摔得不成样子XjVjOTdhMTJmNWYzNzc=,窖内会设置专门搬运冰块的冰板31e8a12caf9cd89cc0a08f3e7190176f,待冰到了窖口MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkK2yqLGi,便将冰板一头支在窖口MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkK2ytc-i,一头支在窖底ff6430e289320f2b26bb7b609572d07a,形成一个斜面JDVjOTdhMTJmNWYzYzQ=,让冰块滑下去62a2ec42e19a2cdfcda6ee7ebaa38156b102635d,再由窖里的工作人员码放整齐MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGSxtc-i。 aad1c1bb544886de1c2f67c51a5aa402482eaed5

21d661d3d50204a054480ad45198ff846a21bffd

a6e608df2b91d3fcf0cd9a837d2524fd03cd041e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKjaC9tbGi

437ebf35298b99010cd34edf8b998f72

IzVjOTdhMTJmNWYwMGE=

08e5f8072b33157dd00307b59a702403

NWM5N2ExMmY1ZjAyZQ==

早期的冰十分珍贵MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkK29qKmi,更多时候只能选择吹风消暑MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGSxy72i4f1eabe342f5ef969e9f23d7b5a9810b86b879ac

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKqwk7Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKqxqKmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKqxtcei

171c2ec8f9f84052c9bdd0dea1d9d63b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKqx26mi

 汉朝末年坐拥“冰井台”的储冰大户曹操c5b4defd0986938e2ffe2d668c7c286c,即常将冰块作为珍贵物品赏赐给下属MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGSx26mi。汉代长乐宫凌室遗址JDVjOTdhMTJmNWY1ODg=。 e91f04ca75361f4447e8a1959ab6b10d

KjVjOTdhMTJmNWYwOWE=

43f4a640d47a1634718a0e3e381f2ddf867f5728

fc6ba8f6011b2f039f45c01e49347daa

dcde6a7a9756d2726bdea24fe5ce7d4a7ded7ba3

517635d7b282d55b609886adfdc6b034

939642e6eab7bc15dd0572e0952d6c7f615b230d

 到了明清时期IzVjOTdhMTJmNWYzZmY=,冰制品就更普及了818738e4c5735f7dfc5c2cc6c8e09baf。以储冰量最大的顺治年间为例15ae0753944b5e32d06658f6a7165c1c90ec8f9d,官方冰窖的年储量可达 208621 块冰MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGOwqLmi,乘以单块冰的重量(约 100 公斤)cfd4e38102fcbfdae3269d360622faa1,总重可达 20000 多吨42b7c8898db6082f64d4e5f823a36458。即使在藏冰量最少的雍正年间MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGOwy8ui,官方储量也有一年 9000 吨左右4b94b9d3bd760fd64b51c9362e87075a。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKq9tcui

3e2bf771c3dd6f629ae6fa5e76c28fe2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKuwpbmi

e7cd78c14276c686e557cb941cf44b63b5c7d0aa

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKuw26Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuElKjcgaOLYr6dfGOxoqGi

 清廷储备的冰块除皇室成员使用外031e0315609bf8ee8358c3a719a229db,还对各级官员设置“冰票”1c8aad4f72e1abefabe1b86763b74859,凭票供应KjVjOTdhMTJmNWY1Y2E=。不过7601120fda0e594963d3d42763208970774e69a8,能凭冰票领到的冰数量极少JTVjOTdhMTJmNWY0NjY=,根本不够使用e093823607da71320df06e7b6c4ebf53,官员们往往还会到市面上去买冰JTVjOTdhMTJmNWY1ZGE=。以下图片为清末北京各衙门每日应领冰块数目1f77430acae98a4458832ae18defd4c9。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKuxtami

c26dea868c0ed4ed890cf0f7512a8823

冰的普及f0f28a1e88a000fc167e1893063186716c8cc8f8

不过JTVjOTdhMTJmNWY0ODA=,唐宋以前MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGOypa2i,冰块过于珍贵cc42ea5244d31ee15b7772e9ec854028da8f553f,冰块要真正走向民间MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkGOyuL2i,还要等到物质文明丰富的宋朝年间a5ce02e3df44ed6ae2b16eb80e42973d5f54feec,民间采冰、藏冰乃至出售各种冰制食品的现象屡见不鲜bcffabdb771c0233f0159b4528414a3a。“冰雪冷元子”、“冰雪甘草汤”、“冰雪凉水荔枝膏”、“冰雪细料馉饳儿”等JTVjOTdhMTJmNWY0YzQ=,都以冰为原料或辅料KjVjOTdhMTJmNWY0ZDM=,如“冰雪甘草汤”就是用甘草、砂糖等原料熬成汤后加入冰屑而成7d4d7e6ada36af6d3fafc1c22a5bd6ed。   NWM5N2ExMmY1ZjE4Yw==

6b202e9d7c889f2a09489d1228b63796

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsfMgYp8nrKKkKuyuK2i

9181cd24a206010d1d275e0ad443fddf40230540

0fd5cf3d514b042fc2e41179a0ba4fb9

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