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古人夏天用的冰从哪来?

想必大家都见过这样的镜头JjViYTZlZmYzYzZlYmQ=,古装剧里4930887d6fb37afb25f472ff313c2ad8,炎炎夏日5f486cee5904c4cdd09796a9ff08dd62aec2c4d6,皇帝的房间里竟然摆上了冰块MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZ-9y6mi,这并不是什么脑洞大开的神镜头MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkaCwpc-i,事实上MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkaCwy6mi,在古代ac6a36ccbfb813f6432fbfc14d0f319d,不仅皇帝能在夏天用冰8c56ed717874736ff7ca4ae10135aa4d03b70b12,一些王公大臣也能在夏天搞到些冰块之类的消暑用品7911ee88ef5f8b7420909fd47dfb5d6f8374610e。他们的冰块是从哪儿来的?用冰块怎样消暑?制冷效果如何呢?下面小编带大家一探究竟:9bbc6b67c778e2d144e53645a4bb8f5407777f59

9825f5342489356d8ebd1f4ca7c4d97b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkGe9tbGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkGe9zq2i

46740887aeb8b200d4095a0fb8fe390abfa14278

499c304cdee6b401c8f4da7ada140751

cb7117c895f135b4af13c1d45aba5e40

用具:早在先秦时期71f157f320b6eca0f28fdd63fe8cdfdb,古人即开始用冰消暑MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkaCyqK2i,那时034876bab798400045ff837f8b4abbba,他们用的工具叫冰鉴QDViYTZlZmYzYzc0Y2I=。是用木制或青铜制造的箱子XjViYTZlZmYzYzZmZGE=,大口小底MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkaC9qLWi,底部有直径很小的排水口a10eb8261ad4385277e03b4c30d5ce3a,可在冰融化后直接排出冷水42e64896218666d6059c3dc219c8e8624039be76,以供使用7cd4180b38baae4476ebba20e8d70d346aaace50ab264a40a92c47b6b18952608daa64b6

IzViYTZlZmYzYzY5YWY=

如何存冰?NWJhNmVmZjNjNjlkMQ==

“凌人”fc7203f0e98e7abb2729eb6c4e303ce845e33654,每年 12 月、1 月都要带领下属到江面、湖面上采冰92a498a2abaa1c0fb933a3d95ba719c220e0f052,封存在阴凉处的冰窖里JTViYTZlZmYzYzcwODA=,配备树叶等隔热材料dd6992ff05e5d0b8838b96ee7f2332426a69be6c,以备夏季使用MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmmO9tcei。由于保存环境、方法的限制6c5af1e83c9aa918a54750665cffe472,这些窖冰的三分之二都会在使用前自行融化db87a8977538084fab23b2c097916dad,因此储冰者需打好提前量1799b5f95e8dd364e8cad9bb6ebef9ec30f7f2cf,采集远远多于需求量的冰块843d5c26fff60f30c8331265c30d2bde5edf37c3,才能满足宫廷需求0a92601fe5f7a2451cdcd6858499c4c0MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkGi9pbmi

f5a24cf4c2f78ae992ad77d6423d7b71

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZuwqKmi

debd391370bcf3ecf150118a41e0ddc3

aa90271f43f303f663729e47495fd568

c64ae37a95625328b7ee45879c89711b

 如何制造?886eacf3decb08614b8fd8619691491b

在采冰、藏冰、用冰等方面MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmquwtaWi,清代都有其独特的管理流程6f9fc64d889bb0d44b1d1eb55d121cc7b36b3066。每年北京水道结冰前5c2015c50943a151c0aaba23d9254f7a,要先放水“涮河”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmquxqK2i,去掉水中的杂草d6a90499c0c6ab2f37a5caacbe3bbfd7672fe3d1。约到冬至时开始采第一批冰e88a3e9c103954694c250c5ffcaa8d51,待水面再次结冻之后再采第二批dd5b6d2762a8e3e06fd371d0d383115a。如此反复7edb5aa52e65d9bd065983ec6f085af3bd44ddb3,每年冬天大概能采到五批冰8170a61cf6ce082152586ce7d44858c35f087952bf90a1dc5dadc2f14e50d1f6

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZuyuLmi

如何搬运?c5c7d1f0a71df0c9f5d25b96b2635907

为保证冰的质量IzViYTZlZmYzYzcxYWQ=,防止冰块从窖口掉落到窖底时摔得不成样子7f00ffa6dfb44139774d38649e65348d,窖内会设置专门搬运冰块的冰板f74b925ee57e010d57dfa480953c1606,待冰到了窖口XjViYTZlZmYzYzcxZmY=,便将冰板一头支在窖口MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgs6Ez7nRjqCAm7KtgKqx2KGi,一头支在窖底b554a72478fe3849e8ebfc571b17e6110a5e5164,形成一个斜面MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmqywk7Wi,让冰块滑下去074994e3456a2e421b399080eeb4906c9623d43c,再由窖里的工作人员码放整齐8296d02c06c5cd84b5db4eabedd28fea。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZu8k7mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZu9tbmi

b1bf2508a59e66c13a88f45895ac8082

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZywtcui

NWJhNmVmZjNjNmI1Zg==

2189a7e7ecdcaff5cf8ab8a5eafe5a09c0f59f47

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZyxk7Gi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZyytc-i

早期的冰十分珍贵XjViYTZlZmYzYzcyODY=,更多时候只能选择吹风消暑5b108d4f86297a7ba281ee971653bea8JTViYTZlZmYzYzZiY2I=

bee6e27baa8df726a14e379a47791200

QDViYTZlZmYzYzZiZmY=

6297da60ea00349213148cdee9c5de1b

320c690519f1cf38312f53ab95736688

f5f1b504f27c4b3400f38e27a73222064d7aa010

 汉朝末年坐拥“冰井台”的储冰大户曹操fe367ec010d585409f54d7ce3d1341198fbf0b58,即常将冰块作为珍贵物品赏赐给下属MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmmS9pc-i。汉代长乐宫凌室遗址MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmmS9y6mi。 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZ2xqL2i

JjViYTZlZmYzYzZjN2I=

NWJhNmVmZjNjNmM5OA==

JDViYTZlZmYzYzZjYjA=

38117f51bf3a28750d7efc9cb827af00

de07df74c66babcd0778fd62a7f8bed4

KjViYTZlZmYzYzZkMDc=

 到了明清时期QDViYTZlZmYzYzcyYjc=,冰制品就更普及了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmmWwqLmi。以储冰量最大的顺治年间为例JTViYTZlZmYzYzcyZDg=,官方冰窖的年储量可达 208621 块冰MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmqy9qLWi,乘以单块冰的重量(约 100 公斤)JDViYTZlZmYzYzczMTY=,总重可达 20000 多吨77a1accfeea851a6e38c61b64020f004e07747d3。即使在藏冰量最少的雍正年间2b363f767a45e6eda7de09a5ee968071bc8fe19e,官方储量也有一年 9000 吨左右MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgs6Ez7nRjqCAm7KtkGOxoqGi。 86bc3120ee75460ec9fc196c7e3c5ecff069ad4d

9cb65c7fae0187ae333fe5642e68579b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZ6w28-i

73d672e1bd779fb375586b44980a7d9a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZ6xk62i

QDViYTZlZmYzYzZkYTc=

 清廷储备的冰块除皇室成员使用外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmq2w28ui,还对各级官员设置“冰票”MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-Ptr3QjqOLq72tmq2xtb2i,凭票供应ITViYTZlZmYzYzc2NzY=。不过e48758fada2a94474ed0d84c9056a4644d4dc95e,能凭冰票领到的冰数量极少JjViYTZlZmYzYzczOWY=,根本不够使用374a82ea50dfaea76c2e4b06314a4c0f,官员们往往还会到市面上去买冰f74f99da67e719a9288867b6049d8cbd294a9b69。以下图片为清末北京各衙门每日应领冰块数目0dffe2577d69d114ae9a5f5347ddb446。 XjViYTZlZmYzYzZkYmY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZ68262i

冰的普及MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZ69qKmi

不过0bb8ebf40eda366333ab1a9bcc1d749f8423a1f5,唐宋以前IzViYTZlZmYzYzczZTY=,冰块过于珍贵KjViYTZlZmYzYzczZmU=,冰块要真正走向民间XjViYTZlZmYzYzc0MzQ=,还要等到物质文明丰富的宋朝年间NWJhNmVmZjNjNzQ2Ng==,民间采冰、藏冰乃至出售各种冰制食品的现象屡见不鲜bbf6c518ece724b877f8081335feb701。“冰雪冷元子”、“冰雪甘草汤”、“冰雪凉水荔枝膏”、“冰雪细料馉饳儿”等JDViYTZlZmYzYzc0N2Y=,都以冰为原料或辅料IzViYTZlZmYzYzc0OTY=,如“冰雪甘草汤”就是用甘草、砂糖等原料熬成汤后加入冰屑而成KjViYTZlZmYzYzc2ZTU=。   3400fd9d5a306b148df3ab7c856bde4bc4808f25

f5ed0c769fb24e747120e52f66754ba3

JjViYTZlZmYzYzZlNGU=

KjViYTZlZmYzYzZlNzg=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-Ptr3QjqOLq72tkZ-xk7Wi

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