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中日韩都用筷子,但筷子的画风怎么差那么多?丨杂物科考队

首先76ec3c3f249346dcfbbb9b4e2336478c103a8d51,我们严正声明MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGto5u826Wi,筷子毫无疑问是中国人发明的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3hKuxtcei。筷子被东亚大陆上的祖先发明之后8608bf3fbd99920b3401e78a0f7c686b,逐渐向周边地区传播MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3hKyxzqmi。最终6fb9950d2baeaefe9915a409bc5cce20ad78b0a5,筷子形成了以中国为中心5c8048faf332c48ddff3cec9b943e5cc,包括朝鲜半岛、日本和东南亚的势力范围QDViNGQ0ODBiNDM0NGE=。虽然都用筷子IzViNGQ0ODBiMzlmZGU=,但是中日韩三国的筷子有相当大的差异MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlfKqwuL2i,可谓是624a9fbdc31286966939f262555cebe1,一筷各表MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3hGOyqK2ied8ab0eb99dd3fd13ff91be0db5c5e91

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtfGS828ei

接下来你将看到:be2e36d3c5cb4c0e81315ea9614897a4

aec61f9a19aab3fab57c65ed2034461f

  ● 老祖宗的筷子也是不断演化的8b6e0743e9ebca9920d7e42d44ae71cd

  ● 筷子在东亚的征服史780e463cc9811fbcffa4c2fc702a9d945a934a28

  ● 啥样的食材MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17q72HgGOw2KGi,决定了啥样的筷子43b5d8f04a6f9f3f6496e8a5e62f238756dcf468

 a9b07a8ca3690e8e81724ac61ee121967d836743

对漆筷情有独钟的值班编辑 / 老梁cefd832e6252d24724aa7c7ff26a627d531e1f6d

NWI0ZDQ4MGIzMWYzOQ==

KjViNGQ0ODBiMzIwNDk=

老祖宗的筷子也是不断演化的KjViNGQ0ODBiMzIxNTk=

  -+-JTViNGQ0ODBiMzIyNjg=

adde3d53ece3d1303415bd7e573c47bf

筷子最初的名字叫65f9e7a1c676877bcfe4de77e1ec6680d206b53a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtgGO828ei

“箸”6f18eb8351c6b74851ad06777381a2564549fb392545b60d78715c66a37977bf9dfa2c6f

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtgGW9uKmi

今天所能见到的较早的筷子86b565a9481f24df7c925e5c9f8ed6d9ecf01a57,材质是用骨头制成759082efb214a22f1512f733ec1f63784cf14c25,称骨箸15eb118cd922b8715dc39a20b4512a7434a7eb13。它于上世纪90年代在江苏高邮龙虬庄被发现0c2d452df47d0f1cc53f9895170766124e9c8a13,距今6600-5500年KjViNGQ0ODBiM2E3NjM=,属于典型的新石器时代6fdae07459fd52441fcec567dd9195b2。骨箸的形状MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17q72Hm5u8sqGi,一般一端平或钝平MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlfGe8zqmi,另一端尖圆KjViNGQ0ODBiM2FhOWI=,也有个别两端尖圆;长度在9.2-18.5厘米之间KjViNGQ0ODBiNDM5YWY=0abf86c56a89ae854e5bfda3e0e4512a

 664c0a2b9201e2f05b05612b29b3c8bf

f30e9f0c292337e1046d3457443736c3c852f67d

79956deb5ef71dc7e2f23165804fd3a215eb5b2c

● 龙虬庄出土的骨箸(新石器时代)QDViNGQ0ODBiMzJkMGM=

 JjViNGQ0ODBiMzJlMWE=

考古学家还发现了商周时期象牙箸、青铜箸等不同材质的筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlfZu9qLGi,短者17.4厘米QDViNGQ0ODBiM2FjYjk=,长(cháng71abb2382a22336c179ba0583347b29b509f1094,不是zhǎng)者可达28厘米MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3hGi9y6mi。不过JDViNGQ0ODBiM2FlZDc=,这时的箸还不是吃饭的用具27673a10de4c91e3987eef1b9bec062e3689ca8c。按照《礼记·曲礼上》的说法JDViNGQ0ODBiM2FmZWI=,箸是用来捞有羹汤的菜MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlgKqw262i,而餐匙(古代称匕、匙)才用来进饭或者舀汤MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3hZ2wuL2i箸独霸餐桌0e3a81647361d862b41d332a69007c59,既扒拉米饭IzViNGQ0ODBiM2IzMjI=,也夹拈除流食之外的食物JjViNGQ0ODBiM2I0MzI=,是在宋代以后慢慢形成的IzViNGQ0ODBiNDNlMTc=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtgZ-xuK2i

b33f3cf2f5a77507c610ef866c47df566f7d55a3

两汉时期ab8bec0dd8d7a23b6018be040db3bb0d,箸的使用等级已经显现JDViNGQ0ODBiNDNmMmQ=。西汉早期时多用竹箸908b79e47451f577e751574ad4562f5bc75a18c7,而在东汉贵族们的墓穴里1cb464fc5469a4ad130b6344daa206f537858b95,铜箸更为常见72469653fcc3725026812263ed62f875ed56bcc0522ac4a35c5f2246b7dd0891bd10b275

74b41ec35b84f1db3d423b731a771dca

等到了隋唐、五代时期ca6b43055cfcaed775f3589f0ee0a5afcbd416cd,箸的质料更显夸张MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlgGe8uL2i,出现了金箸、银箸、玉箸、犀箸、木香箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrFlgGi827Gi,这些当然都是皇帝老爷们才能用得起、大概也只限于他们使用的食具NWI0ZDQ4MGI0NDE2Mg==。拜隋唐手艺人想象力的丰富af59700323ad1a7402f0952c0150435b42753657,这些箸中出现了一批两端细、中间粗的新型箸18b0d67c00c046d2e0cb193dc2676bc3。有种说法认为MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrFlgZy9uKmi,它们是为了满足箸的两端皆可挑刺和挟取食物之需711de92dde74846374a74c2fbd703d909d07a7fb64a9688c31c6d2a3ef088ff71f139e27

845c973b0a5fb407bddfe95fb10ad380578ca6db

浙江长兴下莘桥出土的银箸(唐代)6d81727af9055087091b3335cffa9eda

IzViNGQ0ODBiMzM2YTg=

说起来JDViNGQ0ODBiM2JkYzU=,我们得感谢明清人20922202d416e150cdc65a1abc79b6c0。他们是古代劳动人民智慧的集大成者544bc549136de90dd755ac7fa143eb95ef95f2f1,在筷子上干的事情可真不少KjViNGQ0ODBiM2JmZTQ=,有些还流芳至今:一是将“箸”改称筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlhKqwy7Wi,据说是船家避讳“住”音MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlhKuw27Gi,干脆改成“快儿”或者“快子”3537189c20fe0ba03efd0f1eb63be80e639857be,后来又变成“筷子”的称呼;二是把筷子塑身成首方足圆的标准形体d6930f22176c36f150b26847534c2fc9e5beb6bd,成为我们今天所见的模样;三是规范筷身长度NWI0ZDQ4MGIzYzUwZg==,长度较前代为长MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlhGSxtaWi,多在25厘米左右MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3iGO9uLmi40814612be6bd0875a3f5b8c655ecc53

 21bc07342b84cb7101715eae0cc3b4b3

5311c1283206a3aae966720cae29875907cf3a65

ec69248a347391047683bd787f853677

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGthZyw262i

● 定陵出土的金二镶乌木箸(明代)NWI0ZDQ4MGIzM2QyMg==

 c332a3029b317cf1cb7e6f6a580fc821

7032d14488dacd341352839d13ce2a24

筷子在东亚的征服史QDViNGQ0ODBiMzQwNjU=

  -+-3cd781d0f9788fc37227ea44269bdd55

677dfe9e8793ac636271ab2595ef8e35517b2621

筷子这一代替人手夹菜的玩意1a85f23aa0046771177e4a974083c03d,因其方便好用7a524141d74c8943a1ca4d54d0fe84960bfaf9cc,慢慢传播到周边地区KjViNGQ0ODBiNDQ2ZDY=dc9370ad47c63cd376552c36db9aa7c4a3e834a4

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtiK29uLWi

通常的说法是MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlhGeyqLmi,筷子是商纣政权灭亡后JjViNGQ0ODBiM2NhNmM=,遗臣箕子带领子民来到朝鲜半岛时传入的11d46620664bfd2c8f823653b8d9762810c8fc55。韩国出土的最早的筷子来自公元6世纪的公州市武宁王陵KjViNGQ0ODBiM2NiOGE=,相比中国人出土文物筷子的时间实在是太晚了75fb23474626d9d0078a62f78c543d242c009f1cf317687178d5f74959b4a891ef94a5a32e7b54cb

 NWI0ZDQ4MGIzNDZmNA==

951903dae5e0a16891f8842c33bab6ad

IzViNGQ0ODBiMzQ5MjQ=

XjViNGQ0ODBiMzRhMzg=

● 箕子IzViNGQ0ODBiMzRiNTI=

f1dbf2aa01a54f3f0924c7f98cd2539e

日本人对筷子的出生证明颇有些暧昧ITViNGQ0ODBiNDRhMTM=。有一种观点认为3b3d891d0d1c4b04f1669f7ecf08e613,筷子来自于弥生时代(公元前300-公元250年)695391f8ada7b69fac9acf318d434af5,但都没有实物印证84eae166285119c38562886ba20988ff8f447738。中国的史书《魏志·倭人传》记载说古代日本人“手食”KjViNGQ0ODBiM2NlYzQ=,也都说明岛国还没有普遍使用筷子的习惯0fca3433317b2585785b266e70b3e8b1。在当时东亚文明中心的中国人眼里7aa13e0d9c5cf70aa624a0e03e6cbc2329f34d50,吃饭不用筷子c99bb55c0663e2bd2c51bda085ac55f0,等于是乡下人、蛮夷QDViNGQ0ODBiNDRkNWM=。而日本人努力想要证明公元前就在用筷子828ebbe9a5f75f74ff070bc24bf5004a,也是为了争一个“祖上就文明过”的地位a7b56e71661908ee10c3c7765ea57528MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtiZ28uLWi

b73603b7bd4889c388a1eb7c741f2466

通常的说法是c7b9dffeb9b3af761212e23aa19f7489,筷子在弥生末期由中国经朝鲜半岛传入日本49906680499daaa3f2d9778046f4db9a。它由竹子加工成像镊子一样的东西991ab1375a1b34b7cf2ec09b70a418a33bf1e561,不像现在的筷子成双成对MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFliGOxk62i,日语叫“折箸”a4bfe9abc17e912734befb7dd3422e89。折箸也主要是在祭祀活动中使用4dd3fc41099461f01473007442094bcbc8451b29,所以被看做神器JDViNGQ0ODBiNDUxYjY=ITViNGQ0ODBiMzRmYTc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtiaC9tcui

广大的日本群众继续用手JTViNGQ0ODBiMzUxY2M=

JDViNGQ0ODBiMzUyZGY=

抓饭吃JjViNGQ0ODBiNDUyY2I=ITViNGQ0ODBiMzUzZjk=

266a8e105d81a87fb16201369a7ad660

来自考古界的资料说MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFliGW8zrWi,公元5世纪时e3f8e6dbca392facd3392c085b9fbfb4,在日本伊势神宫、出云大社等寺庙举行祭祀活动时0ba9ce6b02388b4dd58e911723016f03,已经使用一种称做“神箸”的箸MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3jK2wqLWi。它两根一套MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFliZuwpc-i,一端圆形db17c4e033942331d87a2d3bae0ca207,另一端尖形74668f19d95094306f72261f7495b546af5fc0bb,与现在的箸已相当接近54e7e6aaa23cbdc5d006281420ca885f4814f808ITViNGQ0ODBiMzU2MzI=

ff9a5448ac229d30f41dc406d757eb98fbfe9f73

此后XjViNGQ0ODBiM2RlNDQ=,日本与中国之间的文化交流相当频繁MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3jGSwk7Wi。奈良时期(公元7世纪左右)QDViNGQ0ODBiM2RmNTk=,圣德太子以小野妹子为遣隋使a85eb53a66f2d1511462a341eafab6295041fd45,出访中土3f7119c99b6942e27556f301faecef0a48d33eeaIzViNGQ0ODBiMzU4NWI=

7333d207355810775f56cef1a0a0b22b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtjGi8y72i

JTViNGQ0ODBiMzViYTk=

9195ccbab121417652dbbba9689279ee

● 小野妹子(男)d5f376412844e9ef6cb6cbc2c8cd74adc56fcd17

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtjZ-wtcui

小野妹子为中原朝野上下使用筷子的进食方式所折服fe3b07fe1a39b6e529acc6fea2ae25e9,就将筷子带回日本9780ace136cc13afd337a2ae173c5b31。于是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFljKu827Gi,圣德太子在一次招待以裴世清为团长的中国使节团时XjViNGQ0ODBiM2UzYWI=,依照小野妹子的建议ada522a0187b2bda458a07471a6d523b,用箸接待了客人505c7b40752c46ae118485cdf63bd9e1。到这个时候MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFljGSwpa2i,日本人似乎忘记了先前的箸只是祭祀的神才享有的专宠348b2017c981251066e5f1b21f974df5e90b861f,箸在贵族群里得到使用MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFljGaw28ei,并慢慢向平民扩散MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17YbKHomi82KGi268d335634a0f1659b971c35d3a17379810e928a

 8d19e6e2d14e4776c144d442d492b63e

公元8世纪时MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFljGextaWi,箸在岛国已相当普及JTViNGQ0ODBiM2VhM2I=,成为各个阶层都喜闻乐见的食具MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3jZu8y7mi。当时还把它称为“唐箸”00e390ecfc4af71ffc8fee089473a42c1b523ddc,意为来自大唐的筷子JjViNGQ0ODBiNDVjYTU=。不过ITViNGQ0ODBiM2VjNjk=,彼时岛国人似乎比唐朝人更为讲究MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFljZ28uK2i,把箸分为荤素两副:吃鱼和禽类的筷子叫“真鱼箸”61eb5fdc7d4936c9245ba42deb3c788b8e487477,吃素菜的筷子叫“菜箸”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3jZ29tcuiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtkKuxuKmi

 09fa21793ae4d8669b2e296df954f31ac80862c9

89a38cc372cdaf8dae2ef70752d004b8

啥样的食材b34a8626b5499ca4781db2fb78fe9431525cb92f,决定了啥样的筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtkGO8tcei

  -+-ad79200b5b7ec4427b28d6ae89930f3ef64abb94

059a13126cc789ab5223f2ddbd8d9e50

作为源于中国的进食工具XjViNGQ0ODBiM2YwYmU=,筷子尽管在韩日两国间得到了广泛使用QDViNGQ0ODBiM2YxZDY=,但它们的形状却走上了不同的发展道路MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3jZ69zrGia21f0deac600126fabd4740d102176d771453848

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtkGiwqLGi

从长度上说4491d244f354958a4488896c3319750b,一般而言QDViNGQ0ODBiM2YzZmU=,中国的筷子最长cb1e16e21e8d9ee9d1eeb86bec2b5f489a86f511,韩国次之acbffd084d33cffc8722e139855fb1fe9865e0e5,日本敬陪末座KjViNGQ0ODBiNDVmZTk=。大约日本人崇尚分餐制MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlkGWxzrGi,也没有给人夹菜的习惯MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrFlkGaypami,就不必像中国人那样在八仙桌上长距离拈取菜肴38caccf4837e88e6bdda6691952a4fc3d87957ddITViNGQ0ODBiMzZhZmU=

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtkZyxpami

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtkZ2xtcui

0489166762b3f8162e875d8bbf4ea0867f35a809

JDViNGQ0ODBiMzZmNmY=

● 从上至下中、韩、日三国筷子eea4e2d1a80e4618a884147c32fba4cb

QDViNGQ0ODBiMzcxOWQ=

长度不一是一方面MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrFlkGeyuK2i,中日韩三国的筷子长相又是一方面NWI0ZDQ4MGI0NjFlNQ==5985d9cf3d24c802afe498f176adb93b98137bf6

e19efe6a1b9b3f9faaeeebd06a47a35f38a946e7

我们的筷子足部往往又圆又粗ea9267bc91bb97e037674efe84eb8283208894fa,韩国的筷子筷身纤细MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbSUg3p0mrFlkZu8k62i,足部扁平98e063d09b67fd4394811a6578984273,据说这是方便夹豆子01b2b807395917ea417a824cd56b3b913938657a,又容易在小碟里撕开泡菜JTViNGQ0ODBiNDYyZmE=。日本的箸则头尖身短JTViNGQ0ODBiM2ZlZTc=,这与日本人爱吃鱼有关系de841fe60643ca9caff98f9a836edd8b,因为它比较适合挑鱼刺b6c8991b70e8526542b327aa44f4e139。不过d19754983262d5a5dcf0420e052bc686c56504de,话说回来da6b6f3abd0db8cd443b0174e24011252c1165cb,日本的箸似乎保留了隋唐遗风ITViNGQ0ODBiNDAzNDg=,如上文所说9c17ec86554348f64179a87186bc49a9,后者就曾创制一批两端细中间粗的筷子NWI0ZDQ4MGI0NjUyOA==XjViNGQ0ODBiMzc0ZWE=

 170d58a8f25b55d43cdacc53491057f1

KjViNGQ0ODBiMzc3M2Y=

QDViNGQ0ODBiMzc4NTc=

JDViNGQ0ODBiMzc5NmY=

● 日本筷子QDViNGQ0ODBiMzdhODU=

 39770b49896bc1a3d26cb8384854e320

三国之中63ba41a5c9b3e6f426484a0ed161b688690726d8,韩国的筷子材质最为特别JjViNGQ0ODBiNDA2OGM=,用金属制成bbd0b6c117cf1d52c72e58eb2bf03c7a118a0eca。这与其历史文化大有关系fdb5e2593c9214f7a62abd85e9396878b6b08e1b。韩国崇尚金属ITViNGQ0ODBiNDA3OWY=,更崇尚身份的等级制KjViNGQ0ODBiNDA4YjI=,上流社会使用金、银等筷子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3eGe9y7Wi,普通群众使用的多是铁筷ITViNGQ0ODBiNDBhZTA=,到后来就基本变成了不锈钢的筷子3bd2ac528c0bdddc01e59544f1c94c3fa347a45c。金属筷契合了韩国的饮食结构0388f70a71194dcfbcacc957e2b667afb515c5cf。因为它们耐高温、不易变形dae9e8a5e5599bdf6b123c9162500f5df531e39b,而韩国人偏向料理和烤肉是地球人都知道的e5130e64ac7a9be1384d8e851a0cda0dc2f4e565MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtm5y9tcei

87d9c39bab4903f412bbaa781255bb3389783ae5

值得一提的是MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17YbF6hK282KGi,韩国保留了古时中国的用餐礼仪KjViNGQ0ODBiNDZiYTc=。他们在用餐时筷子与勺子并用bd5a55c173d63836a5f39780f61d655a763a6825,筷子负责夹菜MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3eZ-xy7mi,勺子则负责取汤菜和吃饭JjViNGQ0ODBiNDZjYmI=fe19bad26f5cd034206f36063858e6d0

 402bf9d1c46b1683f86a8c71d9717918

cd5d51912144778373805743088116dc

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtnquxzrGi

6aa883527ce7e256f18808d542f25ae702ae162d

● 韩国筷子与匙d8e65eccb78c4d1dc19333dbf2308a9e

a5864e8b670b8e6bce34b63fa8c1fe2c

对比韩国JjViNGQ0ODBiNDEwNDk=,日本的筷子就显得有些寒碜了3a95633fb458751f899744e02f57a1d58c8355f5。从表面上看NWI0ZDQ4MGI0MTE2Mg==,日本“地不分南北f3e3459cb907a34e18917b1ecdba5e3b,人无分老幼”MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3fKy8zq2i,使用的都是木筷MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17YbGHhZ6xoqGi,看似平等98eac3fea410f8e92c6b4955e25a45f5,实际上是因为它的矿产资源太有限了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3kZ-wta2i。例如XjViNGQ0ODBiNDE2ZDE=,纵横日本市场五百年的“渡来钱”XjViNGQ0ODBiNDE3ZWI=,还是从中国漂流过海来的3a4577f8db0e964768a9774ae6b889ef4d0c67d7MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtnmS9pbWi

a6e15cabf98b785e970856924675dfd0

尽管如此QDViNGQ0ODBiNDE4ZmY=,日本人还是能找到满足其虚荣心的方式ITViNGQ0ODBiNDcxMTQ=。江户时代初期(即公元16世纪)b8ef3ca22fa4825fd48c1550a50633f1f7772e57,岛国就流行在筷子上涂漆42bf19dd5a6e33ebdb31823d84e8f7852d7a86ce,用以彰显有钱人的富有和尊贵601fe8402d99b520f7b550c30dc1be19。发展到后来QDViNGQ0ODBiNDFjNDQ=,漆筷不仅在实用上得到发展d076c58d6904dc0c4d8367bb617ab919,而且向工艺品的方向进步XjViNGQ0ODBiNDFlNmU=,一举又成为馈赠亲友的礼品d664fc1e114a614a2d86d9edddef854b7cbba7e5e5c174a0ca0f60e07988805c38fa50b0

IzViNGQ0ODBiMzhhMDU=

再往后3f67356849ddb61e609bb8768e32690b,筷子似乎成为日本经济的晴雨表1878ddb1d2cd8b483dae4ff33bd12fbb13513d29。上世纪80年代之际MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17YbGKkZ6xyKGi,日本特别流行金光闪闪的箸NWI0ZDQ4MGI0MjFjYg==,而到了90年代JDViNGQ0ODBiNDIyZGY=,“素颜”筷子又成为了主流MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3mmOyuLWi0e9ccfe240c0ae0baaa91907132de0ba513d7bf1

aff86ef88933f26fc8b31f983847860c

筷子发展到今天JjViNGQ0ODBiNDIzZjQ=,可以说MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17YbGdiK28yKGi,尽管中国人拥有发明筷子的专利权KjViNGQ0ODBiNDI2MjQ=,但是传播到不同国家MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17YbGdkGW82KGi,却在在彰显了不同的形态和文化特色JDViNGQ0ODBiNDc2OGE=。历史的浩荡洪流MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3gGaypaWi,最终沉淀下来一点痕迹MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3gGeytbGi,就落在了筷子这样的细枝末节之上16b3421cccfb1db63dfe459d4e1483a46849c040MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtn52ypa2i

参考资料:MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQprSYgX17q7N6iZuwsqGi

李庆祥:《日本的箸与文化》a79fb493047e2dd39e95ebacd6976aaa2ea112f7,载《解放军外国语学院学报》0e4aae17b9a4480886b0c04de4939ade,2009(5);f1ccd056bef6ee5a5749e9ef6d52d324

沙媛媛、王晓葵:《筷箸与日本文化》96f5e3ef966f1e872ca49469ca895dd4,载《文化学刊》ecffd5db0b80d9008584e9e0ea047603305b0f9f,2015(2);MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbSUg3p0mrGtn6C8k72i

赵传松:《中国筷箸文化初探——兼与韩国筷子文化比较》JjViNGQ0ODBiNDJlZDQ=,载《山东商业职业技术学院学报》MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbSUg3p0mrJ3gaCwtb2i,2016(3);MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtoqq9tcui

蔡秋英:《东亚文化的食文化考察》e2dac285a1ae7e969e05d1e596268d22,参见  www.juen.ac.jp/kaken/24531177/rep1sai.pdf#search=%27%E7%AE%B8+%E6%97%A5%E4%B8%AD%E9%9F%93%27 JTViNGQ0ODBiNDc4YjQ=XjViNGQ0ODBiMzkyZDM=

IzViNGQ0ODBiMzkzZWE=

ENDa3f8b9ca9212dd14a2518eeefb34f6f52d163243

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbSUg3p0mrGtomSxpcui

 ad8ce01b04fef1ce834a14c6e8a7ad5e

b2647e1358cd31a2396e090bf212e9c5

18badd6587961d2c41d7d4506bf98ce0da78f75a

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