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周武王灭殷之后,为什么要抓两只猫?丨喵客帝国

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon:The Catbridge History of Chinese Cat in the pre-Qin2722d3d12784723e97e0a315077294e4b0e30d61

By Dr. Meow Blackbbc1fe840d829e3b0ae6b8c97f4852cfb6e58077

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKqxqKmi

本文节选自缪·布莱克博士的新著《剑桥中国先秦撸猫史》acfb84e4fcf8b1a11b036c3b9dc2ce68

3c86d0c65f9be37b2be2c032881b63c140838478

译者:夜猫子(正七品带猫侍卫fa934531ffd9bae2de97ce5541876784c74e145e,御膳房行走)edd8419899b556e00813e051aefacd9ecbdba9cb

235f024564a65f41f8f3d2aaf5d16e04

c29fd5ae69fc5c0ec87c1bd8fec6d0c85b1a31fa

4db229aa80545bb4e23131628c6b0e42afe2a944

aaea6dccce4a623857befa7e3c19bbfe

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------951a07cd4f50e2964c87561cc1686d5d

XjVjZTM0ODdlNTAwOWQ=

公元前11世纪MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKD3LSYgmiHYrF3hGayoqGi,依靠从中亚传来的养马和战车技术64f00fdf9e6d8772f7ba48b26fa1b345d3e53d3d,生活在中国西部的周人击败中原地区的殷商30f8de7cef64f1a34ac49ba68826d53dbe17de47,成为中国的统治者07b01c578c21c582171d21f5dc6fd85afab4f549MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKqyuLmi

8ef5444f15c52aea4da8755896a4e41a847072ba

539e583cbc16a755e689cf0b1ae5be27

71cd21d862f5bc7086442f51eff4cf7e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKD3LSYgmiHYrF3eZ2x2KGi

IzVjZTM0ODdlNTAwZDY=

“武王征商簋”f2b8b604c3307d9c34de4a0a0291b58b,1976年出土于陕西MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeK28tcei,现藏中国国家博物馆MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGSxpaWiMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKD3LSYgmiHYrF3eZ6ysqGi

铭文为:“武王征商JjVjZTM0ODdlNTAzYjc=,唯甲子朝MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGSxpcei。岁鼎克昏368f72751a64d162ce8f6d4f3073a2bccc260d12,夙有商MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGSxqL2i。”ITVjZTM0ODdlNTAwZTg=

b4b2ddc028bf7f24c14c653a822c1c65

根据一部中国公元前3世纪到1世纪期间留下的神秘古籍《逸周书》的记载8575dd842c961c9db34c6fa06bb2c783f21b4d08,周朝的建立者姬发(the King Geephaca988f3940b39fdcfae48fee823c67f3ed79534d,?―前1043年)KjVjZTM0ODdlNTAzZDU=,在击败殷商之后70af66a0d01c8f37e9ea6b2cbfda1137,率领武士在殷商的王家园林中进行了大规模的围猎cc4b772e7e61eead957ba69f85cd7db181c3957a。这个微不足道的人类历史事件中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeK29qL2i,意外地出现了中国历史上关于猫最早的记载f9c05f0a0dc1656ef7ced87702aaea6ff76c750e604d817ef38c882d136c834c600fa3406949642e

NWNlMzQ4N2U1MDEwMg==

“武王狩3d9f1e2f385cf8bf7427ce579b144a0d8ae7e067,禽虎二十有二、猫二、麋五千二百三十五、犀十有二、牦七百二十有一、熊百五十有一、罴百一十有八、豕三百五十有二、貉十有八、麂十有六、麝五十、鹿三千五百有八JjVjZTM0ODdlNTA1NmU=。”ITVjZTM0ODdlNTAxMGI=

c6fc77c1874a6c481a701f991d6740c1

在这场几乎是炫耀性的围猎中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeK29uL2i,两只遭捕获的猫显然是极其重要的成果e96ddcaa889c14eb69e69d964132cb8f,仅次于老虎MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGSxzr2iIzVjZTM0ODdlNTAxMWE=

8133b9d1a4c204b61808b0965bbcf3a63975f987

71b958deedc455a968bf113395ccaa2fafeef69e

459273e3df61c72ea162e5f008558754

d884988128f4428728a987946ac3812d553ce80f

姬发的画像MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeK29zrmi,显然由于历史的原因f411061fff72d891d1df64c6ca592132,这个画像与实际相去甚远MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKuwk7mi

c48ca9225be94ef9659899bbb0fdb16ca5aa39f0

即便隔了3000年MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGOwqL2i,我们也可以想象那两只猫和一堆老虎、熊、野猪被绑在一起的困惑表情MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGSx28eiaa7932d739afbac426b50933d29f4b37

6fdb3e569fae17c73218ffa17ab01cba

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKuxuL2i

12f092919235b4419a483808aba2c14d

JDVjZTM0ODdlNTAxN2E=

IzVjZTM0ODdlNTAxODU=

而且de26b4d1c1ed9ff3ff54e5c6aea80559,猫的数量居然比老虎还稀少e06a3fa569d246d36f2b5344cd3552c98c2adf003ee201d643eab318647fe55c

JDVjZTM0ODdlNTAxOTg=

如果不是周武王有特别的虐猫倾向MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGOwuLWi,我们只能怀疑:古代中国的猫和今天的家猫绝不是同一种动物97cb6aec3f987cfcc3a6d489034c3eeec05354fbb8525bfe6033e647cdbd00c2ba83b05e

540522ff9499e645acb1b67943efd99e

我们可以在另一部由中国古代学者Confucius(公元前551年-公元前479年)编撰的诗集《Book of Poetry》之中3698082691c9359b976bad5637851b9f,发现值得怀疑的痕迹JjVjZTM0ODdlNTA1OTQ=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKu8uKmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKu8y6mi

在其中一章歌颂韩国贵族封地的诗篇中写道:MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKD3LSYgmiHYrF3fZ2xsqGi

JTVjZTM0ODdlNTAxZDM=

“有熊有罴11e7db880e2e7d638c7fdba3a8c9d931,有猫有虎,庆既令居KjVjZTM0ODdlNTA0NDM=,韩姞燕誉XjVjZTM0ODdlNTA1OWI=。” (1)IzVjZTM0ODdlNTAxZGE=

91e6976142f7fff87d9d4fca4c94ebdd010a5e10

这句话的意思是ba7a5481e74ea64bf6cc8fd223fa3297d4c87901,这里有熊和罴XjVjZTM0ODdlNTA0NTQ=,有猫和虎MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGOxtbmi,这样物产丰盈的地方NWNlMzQ4N2U1MDQ2Mw==,令我主迎娶的王后非常开心72e395115df132b446e82a920a8d09682928df48327d95d01f1f38209076e0de8ee13619732372bf

19899da384ee9b164fcd0e9e4deb7857

猫也令人困惑地和虎、熊、罴(棕熊)这些庞大的猛兽并列facf5eb78a1900fd8a82fb3c5ca6bfb2b4e70ecd。虽然今天的猫也经常展现出极其凶猛的性格MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGOxy7mi,但我们还是难以想象它可以和大型食肉动物并列89c431a753b76242227440070d022fa5f81d11c9MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKu9y7Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKu9zrGi

JjVjZTM0ODdlNTAyMDk=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKywqKmi

906e4c50bb68ddeeb1e5f21764996339

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKywuK2i

45de720bb97c081d8192aac0b691032e851634c9

这种困惑bdc81a0a0a22a6ade24c13341c322660bb575785,直到我们在一部公元前的古代汉语字典里才找到解释的线索JjVjZTM0ODdlNTA1YzQ=。这部书名意思是“近来的正确文字和语言”的著作记录了一种动物:ef40ffae51bf69f156c1bac9daeeb2da16222b1c

a7590ed542f89da9bbf3788d062a2532c8dc5df3

“虎窃毛谓之虦猫JjVjZTM0ODdlNTA1Y2M=。”(2)61b37649cfa4e45cca67b904ee904cd93efc679e

NWNlMzQ4N2U1MDI0Yw==

这句话的现代含义是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGOx28ei,有一种浅色皮毛的老虎54669076a6841f70ad1c77c29724f488,叫做虦[zhàn]猫487e151a6dfe224a5844d59202c3bdbd。另一部6世纪的古代字典干脆直截了当地指出KjVjZTM0ODdlNTA0OTE=,虦就是猫(3)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGS9pb2i24dac40d1e232ea608de630f85961ee135970af8

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKyxtc-i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKD3LSYgmiHYrF3gGWw2KGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKyxzqmi

d3be0a172f7ac2b35027791d4532ca75

NWNlMzQ4N2U1MDI4NA==

如此说来b35790b063697514c0d5355729d0194c,在中国的先秦时期8c96a53431caeb645755bdd7fde783870660b343,猫应该就是指一种毛色较浅的老虎b4f29261fca7739a95c894b9b7caea6f。老虎的皮毛一般呈现橙色KjVjZTM0ODdlNTA0YWI=,而一对隐性基因的突变会导致老虎的毛色变浅d28b3364d396718c738ccb3e44fb1dce,呈现出一种苍白的淡黄色MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGS9tcui。这类变异今天依然可以在野外或动物园观察到ba4d8ae02c83cd0b8cf3ac90da5e3bc0b817a242XjVjZTM0ODdlNTAyOGU=

d67bf80612f678b70ab0fb8f323e6581

e98fb3da9182d57b42dd884698060336

QDVjZTM0ODdlNTAyYTU=

bb793d635a42c2d9d58d29d0413e35ea0f94e033

 JDVjZTM0ODdlNTAyYjM=

d2380d6d72bd5dce9a867b41d0f293567ac1cb65,这就是三千年前中国人所说的猫NWNlMzQ4N2U1MDYwMQ==。除了毛色较浅之外43cd4a7e450150861106423c02df7bde,它们并不会喜欢被人挠下巴、吃小鱼干4d5d3a92c8dbb09876080b50302059fde5fefa2e。由于基因的变化f9b5170f69a7192a3fba6ee13b5b5f7d,这种“猫”比一般的老虎体型还要稍微大一点af16306fba6ecb8bfab06a2c60528e17MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKy8y7Wi

ITVjZTM0ODdlNTAyYzE=

周武王终于可以洗脱虐猫狂魔的嫌疑66481de7e74ee8f923b0a1566b0d0471,继续成为一个英明神武的天子06ec7f6dc419c1ab6b4717b9dfcf33a12bcd46dbMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeKy8262i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKD3LSYgmiHYrF3gZ28yKGi

我们的第二个问题是KjVjZTM0ODdlNTA0ZDg=,“猫”是什么时候才被中国人赋予一般的、能跳到人膝盖上的小动物身上?642afa68f6c080cf7e8a0d5bcfbf83872551c492

8c3470aeed50eb487b8777c8469d59ccc77218b2

从目前的资料看3d1ac171a31f4ecfd62fae5a75fc73b47418f057,最晚不超过西汉MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKD3LSYgmiHYrF3iZ-w2KGi,也就是公元前2世纪到公元8年之间JjVjZTM0ODdlNTA2MjM=。在这段时间的中国典籍里97be9375937e2cfa9a4334ff61a26a26,猫被描述为一种擅长捕捉老鼠的动物MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGO9y7Wi,和老虎区分开来JTVjZTM0ODdlNTA2MmE=。汉武帝时期(公元前156年-公元前87年)的文人东方朔在与一位将军争论时说:NWNlMzQ4N2U1MDJlOQ==

ea8d1d10f89dd1ec9a79261447485fef

“骐骥骅骝6644134668dcb405a58e70ad1e8ba794,天下良马也0d7f44c69044ac2a49cd1eee20761bb0。将以捕鼠于深宫之中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeGSwpbGi,曾不如一跛猫d07610c0a539681403c4ad23167bfdb0。”QDVjZTM0ODdlNTAyZmM=

36d4ade9bb3ff4822f4dffb40a78117eb6860405

我们可以大胆推测b4744236649c0c68b8b1bb2ea5f1670b,猫此时已经活跃在西汉皇家的宫廷之中749ddfbb8af316f00408c588192bb93c,生活在公元前后世界上最有权势的皇帝身边d88f036b9647928bf92ce0371fa61d63QDVjZTM0ODdlNTAzMGI=

IzVjZTM0ODdlNTAzMTI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeK2wtbGi

365227f1b6ba33c2fa8105aa56f75f7a5f895947

XjVjZTM0ODdlNTAzMmI=

注:1367d1b10b57caaa96558d5094cb79bf7baef447

(1)《诗经·大雅·韩奕》001593e77e95f68013fd002c43ccac8716c6c82e,描述公元前8世纪韩侯入朝受封、觐见、迎亲、归国和归国后的经历;f551569d759408427d3f265a153108d995e80735

(2)《尔雅》3383fe996dc8c5611341f9f0215cb0ff,古代辞书IzVjZTM0ODdlNTA1MzE=,成书于战国到西汉之间;ae29b682d6959997392f3f66856e371b

(3)见南朝文人顾野王所撰《玉篇》;MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeK2xpb2i

9d1ac87b248ac6422206f4fdf84a55e1ddd0777c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCQtrCUg3qWnbKHeK2xtcei

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