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周武王灭殷之后,为什么要抓两只猫?丨喵客帝国

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon:The Catbridge History of Chinese Cat in the pre-QinMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHmmWxtami

By Dr. Meow Black264576c13a5006eb5509f60b3935200d

cef0668db8befc774c0f2b38c2effdc85fdbffd8

本文节选自缪·布莱克博士的新著《剑桥中国先秦撸猫史》KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTc2YzM=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHmmW828ei

译者:夜猫子(正七品带猫侍卫066b1c08d183f98a475a2d36e56cc0bf887a5944,御膳房行走)MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHmmW9uLmi

395e6a6321025d7048f4deb3913c702ebddcfa6a

512ae46c09857bfcfb4f40de8a8795f6

KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTc3NGE=

c8153b14b854a24fffd1a2043519e335ce78b6c4

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------cd5051572229c2bda2f81452aff54e57

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHmmaypbGi

公元前11世纪f9c50ace636c45d4d584b4f133c7475613d7ea78,依靠从中亚传来的养马和战车技术8080f7d3d79198a690d3b082844ef5eb0c817c2d,生活在中国西部的周人击败中原地区的殷商MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qhd6EzLnRjqB_qbN3eGax2KGi,成为中国的统治者MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmSxzrWiITVjMTY1ZmYzMTc3YWY=

c63b445e16d5fccc1a70969688cff2c7f3680245

KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTc3ZGU=

24cf045928a305c4545baf2525e1215b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHmma9zrmi

IzVjMTY1ZmYzMTc4MzQ=

“武王征商簋”JDVjMTY1ZmYzMTgwYTQ=,1976年出土于陕西MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnqq8tcei,现藏中国国家博物馆JjVjMTY1ZmYzMTg1YTA=650fd02aa9af25f1543b00c5c22e3f4d

铭文为:“武王征商178612b481f72d28e47c8b127e56d8f378d316f3,唯甲子朝NWMxNjVmZjMxODViYw==。岁鼎克昏MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnqq9pb2i,夙有商ff77575d3d7e09af0964ea71726516cddbf019ba。”cdf75134a03e5ba89efe8b395b9c32bd

QDVjMTY1ZmYzMTc4ODE=

根据一部中国公元前3世纪到1世纪期间留下的神秘古籍《逸周书》的记载QDVjMTY1ZmYzMTgxMDI=,周朝的建立者姬发(the King GeephaITVjMTY1ZmYzMTgxMTk=,?―前1043年)04b5f202a74adf1968edde2ed201ee0f,在击败殷商之后MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnquw27Wi,率领武士在殷商的王家园林中进行了大规模的围猎de4dab685cdc680cd6883aa6f1f880a0。这个微不足道的人类历史事件中805ce7715164471724e29d1ef3d7644b,意外地出现了中国历史上关于猫最早的记载MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmWwqKmi87cd548c43ff786863c3321128bf3c6a0efbac96

867ef402ff3cc992223ddc08e6767bbb

“武王狩MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnquxy7Gi,禽虎二十有二、猫二、麋五千二百三十五、犀十有二、牦七百二十有一、熊百五十有一、罴百一十有八、豕三百五十有二、貉十有八、麂十有六、麝五十、鹿三千五百有八1ed4ad63e59f0a5dd70785309e695572。”ITVjMTY1ZmYzMTc4ZDQ=

4b3c8e34e41aa7b8a2e21f05c77a0bafd8fdc53b

在这场几乎是炫耀性的围猎中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnquxk6mi,两只遭捕获的猫显然是极其重要的成果a59a0ecf72a168f54b66edb14dea10f1,仅次于老虎5945481c9fb8bf71cfcdb9aff37f649aIzVjMTY1ZmYzMTc5MDM=

XjVjMTY1ZmYzMTc5MWI=

JTVjMTY1ZmYzMTc5MzI=

c89c01e7f0d2081f5f4464776b39636cb9f43a0e

563bad58ce99725079c731186507da27

姬发的画像fc09a2472704fb8b4b280a9a2bbe8735,显然由于历史的原因MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnqu8k7Gi,这个画像与实际相去甚远XjVjMTY1ZmYzMTc5ODg=

fe88ace03f557d9adf74565df16441500ec7a175

即便隔了3000年KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTgyMGU=,我们也可以想象那两只猫和一堆老虎、熊、野猪被绑在一起的困惑表情ab9c5ce6d9f394dc8890b5d669245e56d6f5e3c3MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHmmi8tcui

KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTc5ZGI=

692c6a939771f436ad8bb0e4ba366c35

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHmmi9y72i

ITVjMTY1ZmYzMTdhMmM=

ee8f094aef4d69e5b400d708729df061

而且2c0367dfe2526e38b69a02f50483a702,猫的数量居然比老虎还稀少ec6241595850b94ae006cd96f51dface3f4762573c555abc570850b37f084bbd3e4923b972190cb4

df736caaa383a954d73ab3da6c2417f635324850

如果不是周武王有特别的虐猫倾向55d3f566837044f098e3eaf52c503672871e6ddf,我们只能怀疑:古代中国的猫和今天的家猫绝不是同一种动物NWMxNjVmZjMxODZhNg==21332fac4e672f8728a3d1cca3dbf114

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm5uytbmi

我们可以在另一部由中国古代学者Confucius(公元前551年-公元前479年)编撰的诗集《Book of Poetry》之中MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnqyxqLGi,发现值得怀疑的痕迹IzVjMTY1ZmYzMTg2YzM=429123cb0d20c91cca629e7e426c3844

29a7ce9ce0171441cdb62fb2a5ad0a3e24b99c64

在其中一章歌颂韩国贵族封地的诗篇中写道:6baac6c8f518a56579750b48f10e453e32c8ffd6

XjVjMTY1ZmYzMTdiMTM=

“有熊有罴93debfa440fe322673c55ed6581380ef8b89261c,有猫有虎,庆既令居QDVjMTY1ZmYzMTgyOTU=,韩姞燕誉MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmW8272i。” (1)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm5ywtb2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm5ywzrWi

这句话的意思是JjVjMTY1ZmYzMTgyYWQ=,这里有熊和罴e7adc95da0d823221ce5baf4a4f025ff,有猫和虎JjVjMTY1ZmYzMTgyZGM=,这样物产丰盈的地方fb9e6d0e35a2e632e559389ff9e248ce,令我主迎娶的王后非常开心f412924c6d16bd62d1f17e9ca8f6b95808592b0fNWMxNjVmZjMxN2I1ZQ==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm5yxy6mi

猫也令人困惑地和虎、熊、罴(棕熊)这些庞大的猛兽并列MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmW9y72i。虽然今天的猫也经常展现出极其凶猛的性格cf42b8e7670e445a30f4cd8d759f5390,但我们还是难以想象它可以和大型食肉动物并列JTVjMTY1ZmYzMTg3MjY=IzVjMTY1ZmYzMTdiOGU=

81b759bd5f781704a7e8fb8b71fa86c5ad52b2ab

17f81e69450930a34b4f4945b6e3e7f6b1be3c22

d4240e98fdd212afa78bc771a7cc3d71f35c67b2

7574023ab234475104dda3d324cb3d3f2462e8b5

QDVjMTY1ZmYzMTdjMDM=

24ca3b72e846fb315fe4ea959e607779

这种困惑ad5e9109974cdbde22c4f7875c93641d,直到我们在一部公元前的古代汉语字典里才找到解释的线索0fe144a49ca14ee70133ead6bdcd089191f24076。这部书名意思是“近来的正确文字和语言”的著作记录了一种动物:IzVjMTY1ZmYzMTdjM2I=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm52wk72i

“虎窃毛谓之虦猫MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmaxpcei。”(2)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm52xuLGi

f6aa397b3caa53936799c90da28309ba

这句话的现代含义是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnq2wy72i,有一种浅色皮毛的老虎4fd41adfbaefa64fd5d395490b01b01db5735097,叫做虦[zhàn]猫XjVjMTY1ZmYzMTg3Nzg=。另一部6世纪的古代字典干脆直截了当地指出b3274f99c1ff481550cc9b74f690da6bb65d4117,虦就是猫(3)JjVjMTY1ZmYzMTg3OTQ=KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTdjYWY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qhd6EzLnRjqB_qbJlhZyx2KGi

QDVjMTY1ZmYzMTdjZTg=

a65b910d137c49fc9d77792edf000f0b77ab0463

192361c50744dec94f7e88ab713648da

9fd5ed4570c2ed7d7705237280f64bc909ccb632

如此说来5c7de62cbc02fc5d78e8a2a0c60f813009484275,在中国的先秦时期4597a4c5363c913251f99efc89acbad7,猫应该就是指一种毛色较浅的老虎314326f6943c8b39de626c1948931dbc5d1b892b。老虎的皮毛一般呈现橙色b2fa6a30f2b5b9409658ff24c006ad872fcd5c69,而一对隐性基因的突变会导致老虎的毛色变浅7cd611124af66d578389cdfc67374978,呈现出一种苍白的淡黄色MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnma8uL2i。这类变异今天依然可以在野外或动物园观察到MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnma828eiITVjMTY1ZmYzMTdkNDc=

27ffc4bf76bc79ae90a89b59b61320718d79e2f9

JDVjMTY1ZmYzMTdkODU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm56ypcui

ITVjMTY1ZmYzMTdkYjQ=

 b218b8f7a489871cd82baac5c9dff98111655221

KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTgzZjU=,这就是三千年前中国人所说的猫ITVjMTY1ZmYzMTg3ZjM=。除了毛色较浅之外e99785424cfcdf2d06b6ea2251d0a090e3bf45bf,它们并不会喜欢被人挠下巴、吃小鱼干MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnma9y72i。由于基因的变化MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmOwtbmi,这种“猫”比一般的老虎体型还要稍微大一点MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmewqLmi1b3f98c1ee70ff6a5b4da436c941e9ac577c56d4

f50f702d012dcf031194b38a4e70932f1e3e2cd3

周武王终于可以洗脱虐猫狂魔的嫌疑fce04f149bf21ece06145ad9534a9ab0,继续成为一个英明神武的天子MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmewy7mi9d814abba50263495e0da1b6c0e2d84b

b39540475520a218cfa1131ec9b14cf323e5c74d

我们的第二个问题是a7da6c9aab71f19760eac7d3d44631ff,“猫”是什么时候才被中国人赋予一般的、能跳到人膝盖上的小动物身上?a8849b801deadfba3babfa61a04a6a62

03136bf799af7756d208433c5bcc3d514eb2e48a

从目前的资料看KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTg0NzU=,最晚不超过西汉853b03bfcc145aad03f01b369f970b2c07899c1b,也就是公元前2世纪到公元8年之间JTVjMTY1ZmYzMTg4NTE=。在这段时间的中国典籍里MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmOytaWi,猫被描述为一种擅长捕捉老鼠的动物JTVjMTY1ZmYzMTg0YzE=,和老虎区分开来IzVjMTY1ZmYzMTg4Njg=。汉武帝时期(公元前156年-公元前87年)的文人东方朔在与一位将军争论时说:f47693452c211fb9964a5629051524a6

ec2ec2d2a058e06682be2867dfd6c4ce

“骐骥骅骝QDVjMTY1ZmYzMTg0ZDk=,天下良马也JDVjMTY1ZmYzMTg4OGE=。将以捕鼠于深宫之中KjVjMTY1ZmYzMTg0ZjA=,曾不如一跛猫ade417cfb26af8ba56dc3c267ea6e51f883859b2。”85087d9c382989f35d4c4fd8ca15bedc

ef33fba9d695819a0eb5d5718122c4cb

我们可以大胆推测MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmO9y7Gi,猫此时已经活跃在西汉皇家的宫廷之中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmSwqK2i,生活在公元前后世界上最有权势的皇帝身边MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnme8uKmiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm6Cwpcei

42d0c2db5c93ae940615787b7626743d

79a51faa6df17370dd49d3a50f523751323a6fd1

QDVjMTY1ZmYzMTdmNjc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHm6Cxzq2i

注:XjVjMTY1ZmYzMTdmOTY=

(1)《诗经·大雅·韩奕》JTVjMTY1ZmYzMTg1Mzc=,描述公元前8世纪韩侯入朝受封、觐见、迎亲、归国和归国后的经历;a1f44f467d3ba2aecefe406fec62e720

(2)《尔雅》MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmSwk6mi,古代辞书MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnmSxta2i,成书于战国到西汉之间;JjVjMTY1ZmYzMTdmY2I=

(3)见南朝文人顾野王所撰《玉篇》;6deb37f192f8ce4d994a42e8b8ce781ea168be6a

b480aab79d2e7ad35d6e62066f47d401

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryVjqOLq7GHnqqwpbGi

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