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周武王灭殷之后,为什么要抓两只猫?丨喵客帝国

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon:The Catbridge History of Chinese Cat in the pre-Qin1c33115bb474068a42b89e11e24d8c2e

By Dr. Meow BlackQDVjNmVjNzg3ODE3ZGE=

d6e7814b03caa0784394736784a80f6943959065

本文节选自缪·布莱克博士的新著《剑桥中国先秦撸猫史》1e187330e391a7a9c0005bd295e2727be61b4238

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGa9uL2i

译者:夜猫子(正七品带猫侍卫df7ee16a0b07f407303d0e5944de26825ed6e83f,御膳房行走)a8e8ed211c03b5077723334bbd2594f42714341c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGewpami

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubCXg3qVZbGHnqq8yKGi

1cfe9521a7c19e2e4bb065f79de41890c4014cd7

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGewuKmi

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8c306203af7ca64c47c1f1fd99b0c1fb

085f132c8bb74bfd927dc1d320ee5781

公元前11世纪MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZywqLWi,依靠从中亚传来的养马和战车技术6557bbbfef310240477f8c708d198365ce88c076,生活在中国西部的周人击败中原地区的殷商QDVjNmVjNzg3ODFiMjc=,成为中国的统治者JDVjNmVjNzg3ODFjY2Y=MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubCXg3qVZbGHnq2xoqGi

3faa12f06db9aee373c943edfbc5fbbb

KjVjNmVjNzg3ODE4NGM=

880c4e8b4d2baf825111959488f1153b

0f798e9cfefd642060467f3d7f209c95a3202800

JDVjNmVjNzg3ODE4NjY=

“武王征商簋”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZywy8ui,1976年出土于陕西MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZyw262i,现藏中国国家博物馆61da77254276ae2ceff3821f2cdae8a0KjVjNmVjNzg3ODE4NmY=

铭文为:“武王征商MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZywk6mi,唯甲子朝47e0aaa67465ede0984f8309ff2b2ad6bdaa9314。岁鼎克昏ITVjNmVjNzg3ODFiNGI=,夙有商MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ29ta2i。”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGex26Wi

ca5326e7778c3c51d8b138d0c3dd5c12

根据一部中国公元前3世纪到1世纪期间留下的神秘古籍《逸周书》的记载MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZyxqLGi,周朝的建立者姬发(the King GeephaMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZyxtbmi,?―前1043年)MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZyxuLGi,在击败殷商之后117267fb25af8b753e36413a03022e692bca413d,率领武士在殷商的王家园林中进行了大规模的围猎ae7aa229a40113ede31b95370a4df407c71e1fa2。这个微不足道的人类历史事件中792f21c845249a414885f6d15921817b020a3cc1,意外地出现了中国历史上关于猫最早的记载MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ29y6mif0efee76f0a989fabcca23ee76598d34d7733fcd

b295af9d25430ba423cf8fb7e7bbe7a8ec552805

“武王狩4cb8b23cb12c5e1578fb643ac72518b0b46525fc,禽虎二十有二、猫二、麋五千二百三十五、犀十有二、牦七百二十有一、熊百五十有一、罴百一十有八、豕三百五十有二、貉十有八、麂十有六、麝五十、鹿三千五百有八MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ29zqmi。”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGeytami

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGeytc-i

在这场几乎是炫耀性的围猎中69e2bd6d2867ea1053070cfe93ac5787f846ba12,两只遭捕获的猫显然是极其重要的成果13e0e510711892ce0d7fbd2c5e83d9f5,仅次于老虎f4ed616a416168bd1ec8cca5f8bab3de11f2fd85fa1198a40eb90b634b46705410fcf17b

aaa27882c0705ab5b0657c9b56b53b958fc5f850

c44bbacfc9fda9b66df4417483db7fc8587bdc17

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGe8y72i

JjVjNmVjNzg3ODE4YzU=

姬发的画像MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZyyqLWi,显然由于历史的原因MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZyytbWi,这个画像与实际相去甚远ce7ad95263d8acb7d37f623f1c688e45f41ae0ac

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGe8k7mi

即便隔了3000年8599a7d1f37d416b1411081a6fe92bef,我们也可以想象那两只猫和一堆老虎、熊、野猪被绑在一起的困惑表情ebbf7ebfd55236fc4ba02811da9a57f1QDVjNmVjNzg3ODE4ZTA=

JjVjNmVjNzg3ODE4ZTg=

513a505abbe73a4488cb13f95098956b91436799

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGe9y7Gi

a6a65fab46cf217811e1c77444a144d085154757

JDVjNmVjNzg3ODE5MDc=

而且MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZy8tbmi,猫的数量居然比老虎还稀少MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubCXg3qVZbGKiKuxsqGiITVjNmVjNzg3ODE5MGU=

0f1e48fce33b96f83cfdd23bd59eaf3c

如果不是周武王有特别的虐猫倾向e1cedd17af372e84090d8501472950c58e8c1cdd,我们只能怀疑:古代中国的猫和今天的家猫绝不是同一种动物JDVjNmVjNzg3ODFkMjM=4ad7cd7612a6d0bd5f635122b447cd843f70a736

bbf36fde1e95412a0d6f79523a8831e6

我们可以在另一部由中国古代学者Confucius(公元前551年-公元前479年)编撰的诗集《Book of Poetry》之中NWM2ZWM3ODc4MWJiYw==,发现值得怀疑的痕迹MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ6wy7Wi0f887b1daf2d0bd3a01375d5e43634bc664c3bd5

55857d8f86e5afa43dbeb4eae6266f56

在其中一章歌颂韩国贵族封地的诗篇中写道:4c11d01f936e4ec4d7fcd960ed0cf424318a0deb

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGixpbmi

“有熊有罴MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZy8zrWi,有猫有虎,庆既令居06fa1cd9deaf2a26243644345b2024c1,韩姞燕誉MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ6wzrGi。” (1)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGixtami

697113b4f11df13e2152e6ccb1da246b3a01d351

这句话的意思是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZy8k7Gi,这里有熊和罴44b657c9fa9e92837e56cd9c0f953f9b734fad1e,有猫和虎3bad7bdb2c85b112c517418dbac72c6c,这样物产丰盈的地方MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZy9tb2i,令我主迎娶的王后非常开心NWM2ZWM3ODc4MWQzZA==MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGixzq2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGix27mi

猫也令人困惑地和虎、熊、罴(棕熊)这些庞大的猛兽并列MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ6wk7mi。虽然今天的猫也经常展现出极其凶猛的性格21cec5d9bde13d570f48d41dce7c8a90,但我们还是难以想象它可以和大型食肉动物并列d80998e4ff5cbb2cf5c15d614c926810MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubCXg3qVZbGHoma9yKGi

b80804540a458e30f788b8b148fc59ea

ITVjNmVjNzg3ODE5OTY=

KjVjNmVjNzg3ODE5OWY=

KjVjNmVjNzg3ODE5YTc=

f7893624d68ec7d0cab1e9049109c1a196de7472

4a4729099ae0c901ccbec6aee3aefc700f3f468d

这种困惑IzVjNmVjNzg3ODFiZmU=,直到我们在一部公元前的古代汉语字典里才找到解释的线索0adc2edeaf6ca019a765703d2db13c7e。这部书名意思是“近来的正确文字和语言”的著作记录了一种动物:MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fGi8y72i

922681ab591eccc531939e408421b64387302d3a

“虎窃毛谓之虦猫23bffef4c57daa1d9b9fd7bbe2d6a0c1c21c1798。”(2)fae08e1b92aeaefe104e87301f241b2d

5dd9c5d3e565932b51b10f322f42d4b0f779dacf

这句话的现代含义是45a9a7bdb4a7182ffc3e9b21fe19e3b7,有一种浅色皮毛的老虎8d30be55a805b804dfd4ee9c7db29e2294015304,叫做虦[zhàn]猫IzVjNmVjNzg3ODFkNjM=。另一部6世纪的古代字典干脆直截了当地指出IzVjNmVjNzg3ODFjMTU=,虦就是猫(3)KjVjNmVjNzg3ODFkNmE=NWM2ZWM3ODc4MTllNQ==

292da149ce234640550935dfa9d591956d877528

1607a13ea015e218242b111fa8dbe276

ebcf39ed95408ce59ecf45578a832e0b9dd294e9

59197377022a790ca3ff865179ae938d

KjVjNmVjNzg3ODFhMTE=

如此说来KjVjNmVjNzg3ODFjMWU=,在中国的先秦时期1fc3541c39d4fa8eb8ab61c5e5199134497377c8,猫应该就是指一种毛色较浅的老虎MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ6xzq2i。老虎的皮毛一般呈现橙色QDVjNmVjNzg3ODFjMmQ=,而一对隐性基因的突变会导致老虎的毛色变浅2d311e0933fbf8b9a25022b755adf51527261e29,呈现出一种苍白的淡黄色JjVjNmVjNzg3ODFkN2Q=。这类变异今天依然可以在野外或动物园观察到127a69c8eac679f0f1964c76c28d48b9e6e7baa8ded21bbc46cddab8b58b783d873da0c808de0a9d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZuwuKmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZuwy6mi

JjVjNmVjNzg3ODFhMmU=

278e2fd4ff66d04dfb932389421d78f9

 MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZuw28ui

32863fb8253ca19448a4433c77fc74d045882a45,这就是三千年前中国人所说的猫MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ6ypcei。除了毛色较浅之外XjVjNmVjNzg3ODFjNDU=,它们并不会喜欢被人挠下巴、吃小鱼干JjVjNmVjNzg3ODFkOTU=。由于基因的变化441d5f1e50ec98b6a5601027df5755842e038808,这种“猫”比一般的老虎体型还要稍微大一点MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubCXg3qVZbGKiGiyoqGic79cf57094210b2eeb2e58f75a757717

XjVjNmVjNzg3ODFhNTE=

周武王终于可以洗脱虐猫狂魔的嫌疑0cdf239a9509c1cf72ec175fbbaa053e,继续成为一个英明神武的天子e8d8db1f2036fb7708e63d38dd0a4f76a88f63e93a5d2d17b63abd87b224fd66

7aa156ac44bd9737308deb5dc573b397a46e5d03

我们的第二个问题是MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubCXg3qVZbGKhGS8sqGi,“猫”是什么时候才被中国人赋予一般的、能跳到人膝盖上的小动物身上?JjVjNmVjNzg3ODFhNjk=

8cde8a580d13db3f13879ad34618fe72

从目前的资料看ef23edd50571d91acf4443d709901e2cf0ad4a78,最晚不超过西汉XjVjNmVjNzg3ODFjNzM=,也就是公元前2世纪到公元8年之间KjVjNmVjNzg3ODFkYWQ=。在这段时间的中国典籍里5894df4fb018d120a1a7b22923dd4cd2985ba334,猫被描述为一种擅长捕捉老鼠的动物f3029e306ac9436c9eef8c319734986aa1fccd52,和老虎区分开来72337257421e55980c93c81bbaa90bf3。汉武帝时期(公元前156年-公元前87年)的文人东方朔在与一位将军争论时说:MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZuxk62i

KjVjNmVjNzg3ODFhOGM=

“骐骥骅骝b1df12df2c414f75f143f113394d1257465df96a,天下良马也78e3fb984e5653b1f1d9ef2c380e5ea0。将以捕鼠于深宫之中JjVjNmVjNzg3ODFjOTU=,曾不如一跛猫KjVjNmVjNzg3ODFkYzc=。”MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZuyqLWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZuytbmi

我们可以大胆推测d61e7b72f91e4a510bc7f72675bb6d34,猫此时已经活跃在西汉皇家的宫廷之中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZ2yuLmi,生活在公元前后世界上最有权势的皇帝身边13a7cac57f4d733480358ebc6536e20a02e031a5574b6eb8136436097b300d28a63dfae9d525de76

ITVjNmVjNzg3ODFhYWI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubCXg3qVZbGKfZu9sqGi

NWM2ZWM3ODc4MWFjMg==

c109537b95d1019bdae4f5192675cb2e

注:ITVjNmVjNzg3ODFhZDU=

(1)《诗经·大雅·韩奕》c63422af007ff051e1887f520dfe504d0adf3728,描述公元前8世纪韩侯入朝受封、觐见、迎亲、归国和归国后的经历;96f2ea18fb4d2af364e1853a080ce232f65fda89

(2)《尔雅》JTVjNmVjNzg3ODFjYjk=,古代辞书cba9b62ca59712d1d543fbc912580f72,成书于战国到西汉之间;MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZu9qLmi

(3)见南朝文人顾野王所撰《玉篇》;JTVjNmVjNzg3ODFhZWU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZu9uL2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEz7nOgrCZZLN3fZu9y8ei

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