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砍头之前,刽子手真的会往刀上喷一口酒吗?丨脑洞问答

S.S.Zhao:古装剧里演砍头的时候b0400f7346f998279beb8cf9460cb75e,刽子手在砍头之前总会喝一口水然后喷在刀上9b44e7021821fe36927da4d0a294385643cbb6d1,真实的历史中砍头前也要这样做吗?这样做有什么用呢?QDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk1YTc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domS8uK2i

平常也不喝酒的实习编辑 / 猛猛ae20b1b51195912077dc916832031248ca9150c1

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domS827Wi

砍头cd5ee94d84c32fe04440ea23b2ca1a6418d62034,在古代书面语中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domaw26Wi,又叫“大辟”a322fe5b506a378e7e7d734c42da9d14。正史中对于“大辟”的记载都比较简略JDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk3M2Y=,对于行刑过程的记载更是少之又少JTVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk5Zjg=。例如《文献通考》:MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domS8k72i

 “孝文除口误ITVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk3NDY=,开酒禁e714e54042d281e2df3e6c045f6eed733ca286d6。故事f177ca93d298a0321e16e34c3afa9e0c,皆斩裸形伏质c32a3c25ea11e719f4db47af3cbf8d53,太和初5d1ae88fa0e93407acf6757dc10050bc8c03f936,制不令裸形5f697913505702ed0a98f6b29ade00f980d22357。又令高闾修旧文053bda0f2eb814428919cfeb687d3c4c,随例增减e258352e5d680123134e8954dede3c42,凡八百三十二章4c12f46146498c14ff520ca8d64c2a6a,门房之诛十有六87eaee86f53fff5ed6e3861231c6b952,大辟之罪二百三十五NWMxNjZjYzZiOTc5Yg==,刑三百七十七;除群行剽劫首谋门诛5c4e0889d982def3fb4093bd982235f6570a8c21,律重者止枭首MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjWh_Y72do5uwqK2i。”956414c0e7c5b7d56ae16515845c9148

 由于刽子手在古代被认为是一种贱役MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72doma8tbmi,所以dccba72d6fec0a43beac2996eb7fe0148a36b9f8,正史中描述其生活的文章也并不多MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryWjWh_Y72do5uwtbGi07490bdcf58a2aa4a7c238bdf3195652

ITVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk1ZjQ=

“侍卫们哪由他分说将他按在地下038e70f59135c6d40d1764a334508fe089964c26,算是叩过头fc2afe94f581ab26ee69fdd745c36b532736a6e4,便推出棚外0546bb6a708281d6cd52e87281ea643e2cef4432。到行刑的地方MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72doma828ei,叫他跪下MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjWh_Y72doma8k72i,肃顺仍是不跪MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72doma9pcei,那侍卫又将他按倒6ec964132059597a1366badab375978c240409a5,肃顺又破口大骂QDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk3ZWQ=,还拿十分龌龊的话0da6989b721241a3c197d923b66c4c9c6cdb487e,骂西太后0b929c17e5a2ab3d366923e703ab8088dc838ee9ca6d2fe0d82db168afb9dcf59b28cfb9

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domS9zrWi

睿亲王仁寿db6d8cfc15566129abe639bb6a4861f9,与刑部尚书载龄f2ff7c981d43712e9ccfbdbe0b5c28c7,见肃顺骂得太不成话了XjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk4MTQ=,便叫刽子手拿刀口搁在肃顺的嘴里c270bb092b3a0f590d953702aa5ab01c,舌头也割断aad2d2e4149d457dd6b716540a582ba7e79bc11a,牙齿也磕落NWMxNjZjYzZiOTgyZg==,他满嘴流着鲜血f5d969097d5d4445e8185e6b2072f4c7,还是骂不绝口6d6146b448d9c569e10f06289d79f8f0QDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2MGM=

JjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2MTQ=

睿亲王仁寿便叫刽子手赶快斩决06a7babef208dfcb4f2dcd5c41235dc61ab43901,刽子手奉谕之后fb8fa6199b9207b97c803424a408e2c263cbbcce,也等不及时辰MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjWh_Y72domexqKmi,便举起虎头大刀MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domexta2i,嚓吃一声d2c27a5e95de0593da2ef720f30f0db2,把肃顺的脑袋砍了下来IzVjMTY2Y2M2YjlhM2E=。顿时两旁街道上瞧热闹的人JTVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk4NmI=,都欢喜震天ab1b37e56033d7fb881ca27e38d4aedb0aacb56f,如雷贯耳d1ff4fc541b903b77035a964346ccf57,人人喝采aac7b71625d5a900f7eb8992bf3825fc,无不叫快706c642b9080900e3618790d13aafe32e20c8cf2。”8fc8788c332a733644d6d8c1a7fcb998

 而大家耳熟能详的戏剧《窦娥冤》中JDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk4ODg=,对于行刑动作的描写则十分简略:MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domWwuLWi

 “〔刽子做开刀c4f6b2890d10557c93e4b4ca232d5769,正旦倒科〕〔监斩官惊云〕呀QDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk4OTc=,真个下雪了5088bae72a1b4539648e13c6e2837983cfafdf5e,有这等异事!”MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjWh_Y72domWwy7mi

1159382e0c208052540e391d52a681f0

JDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2M2U=

914a435511257a746a322e70c9d83efc8808f733

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjWh_Y72domWxpb2i

开刀就是戏剧中砍头的动作MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCDtryWjWh_Y72do5uxpbmi。在流传至今的戏剧表演中545bd1a5fb64ef88483f6e42dd8279f763f1e12a,这一幕就是演刽子手的做一个砍的动作afb7cf713b1960f8b9dd8f3bfd7e38b7,然后JTVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk4YmE=,窦娥就扑通倒下了JjVjMTY2Y2M2YjlhNTU=。只是讲了砍头这一动作XjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk4YzM=,也没有对于喷酒的描述JjVjMTY2Y2M2YjlhNWM=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domWxqLmi

 不过至少明确的是855c37392fd1e3918836db570b8f7982,刽子手并没有那么多拖拖拉拉的动作JjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk4ZDU=,往往手起刀落就完事了ITVjMTY2Y2M2YjlhNjQ=。除了古代的文学作品之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72dome9pb2i,现代的文学作品也没有往刀上喷酒的描述b92afe362b523677f5c2885d27f5c686a74f3797。例如莫言在《檀香刑》中的是这么写行刑过程的: IzVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2NWQ=

‘时辰到——’随着他的喊叫acdf0c7391a6ca855f70cc6deb2c3e6c,大喇叭一齐悲鸣起来770f648195f051773ab9b25e5f07ef2906542cee,那些个马兵也都嘬着嘴唇0f1466cedd73d7a5ba069abc3a565107cf9ad600,吹出了呜呜的声音JTVjMTY2Y2M2YjlhNzM=0e02b1aa138d4934856de827850d6f43

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domWxy8ei

一个刽子手伸手揪住了死囚的小辫子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72dome9zq2i,往前牵引着JTVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk5MGM=,使死囚的脖子直如棍子MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjWh_Y72do5ux27Wi。另一个刽子手MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domiwqLWi,用胳膊拐着刀c70154eabd91efdfeb894f9d77d7b167dcbe5419,身体往右偏转b9e2a6a84b6fcead5a24568ee68df0cc82ff17f0,然后bd49328cbad5e4842ffe8115409ca3b0,潇洒地往左转回0e51221a57c7d6c3feadd29ca42a1444,噌0adbfbf2f21ea2253b83dde079c555da,一道白光闪过5bdd0349ba56bfae4e6ea9eda23753e5a5d610d4,伴随着半截冤枉的哀鸣MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domixqK2i,前边那个刽子手已经把死囚的脑袋高高地举了起来eea88e55a932f7e8172097226cfe0e370568456bMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCDtryWjWh_Y72domWxzr2i

196f951fe4142fd0ee0768e3fdc0ad5e

执刀的刽子手与他的同伴站成一排MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domixtbGi,面对着监刑官JjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk5NjU=,齐声高呼:‘请大人验刑!’KjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2ODg=

0f3defb56a3ceb1a574b190a45a37a4a

1851年6a120b66362526195096fa546c1f5c85,英国驻华领事馆翻译密迪乐对于一次在中国目睹的行刑过程的回忆NWMxNjZjYzZiOTk3Ng==,应该是可信度比较高的的记载QDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk5N2U=,其中也没有提到往刀上喷酒的行为d43d3aac86fd8cae56f83ab6445c4a06MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domWytami

事实上bf790890bbe1d99ba7adc4010237f6c9cee60272,刽子手不会在行刑过程中有很多内心戏MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjWh_Y72do5uytaWi。刽子手在首次“登场”之前往往要经过数年的刀法练习0b3137fde4e5702f4125f4ae38d8f1372c064aef,从劈冬瓜到削稥头MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCDtryWjWh_Y72domiyqLmi,再到熟悉人的颈部关节MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domiytb2i,就算这样MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domiyuLmi,在执行中也需要全神贯注才能够顺利完成“人头落地”的任务0e5e08cca21dc040aa97a2fb9ae37c2d8619f3050b8ed25cfbab86daf75adda53ac76ce11b659db0

735a359478060d831ceafaf4033ff0cbd5fff3c8

47d4bf6cb9ff15d8572e1fc9f43aaae8

QDVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2YmE=

XjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2YzQ=

XjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2Y2M=

有观点认为刽子手出于消毒、使刀变得更快等目的会往刀上喷一口酒65870daa55b3eca322dba4a66b78b91c0631c5fe,这些说法是站不住脚的fea66d15adec4657ca4f79c984a703dde8fb3f00。不过祭刀、壮胆的说法倒有几分可能性MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domi8y6mi,但这并非所有刽子手的标配行为MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCDtryWjWh_Y72do5u8tcei17c5741ab39149aefa0883e4863dd8ef80aeb854

当然1dca9acff57ef10bf6dd8ee4861029b0,影视剧之所以都这么拍的原因4c54ea5ad981f4aad2eb89a410707ce6b9bbbd90,或许是出于剧情需要887c4c9f482cb7f7db5ebd5c4ee85e1d2c66b7c3,使得整个行刑过程的表演动作更加饱满MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domi9pcei也或许841949d46f438a4df4346a3e946f51fd0c2530d5,就是为了给皇上派来的特使一个喊“刀下留人”的机会68bb291db41a3c1f3b03d4f4c94f2a20eb43c10fJTVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2ZGU=

XjVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2ZTg=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domW9tc-i

ITVjMTY2Y2M2Yjk2ZmE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCDtryWjWh_Y72domW9zq2i

3d24e1acc0d8c242f240a66478152a67

fbb4f75ccf7d8eb2badfaa62f6c02f37b8302190

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