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砍头之前,刽子手真的会往刀上喷一口酒吗?丨脑洞问答

S.S.Zhao:古装剧里演砍头的时候199a8102dc7f746b65f4159f4488f099,刽子手在砍头之前总会喝一口水然后喷在刀上b673b4221e876e723ff04dc9b41a73fc67dd588e,真实的历史中砍头前也要这样做吗?这样做有什么用呢?MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HjaCxk6mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZiQubHMgaCenbKKkZywyKGi

平常也不喝酒的实习编辑 / 猛猛KjVjNmVjYTI5ZTVmZDU=

679180d635d1778d1f8386af8df55bd9419a22cf

砍头ba9fe8dfd742a0da7cc2df77af3e61bdf5a95d22,在古代书面语中7e8e3c79b49d0b1d5a71485a0b5d94fd,又叫“大辟”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGWyqLGi。正史中对于“大辟”的记载都比较简略aa8e1be764dc0aac7cea1a50f52981af,对于行刑过程的记载更是少之又少01c0d5f5c007bd9de7fbc6e471283623c21a7d60。例如《文献通考》:MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HjaC9tbmi

 “孝文除口误88ebc1752050ed436439d6561e13831f,开酒禁JjVjNmVjYTI5ZTY2YmI=。故事JDVjNmVjYTI5ZTYyN2M=,皆斩裸形伏质061e71a81e4b717378d9042dc2195c11,太和初8cb121da8b153cd00d70ac7a683c1669,制不令裸形JjVjNmVjYTI5ZTY2Yzg=。又令高闾修旧文42b95fc110965f2e1d9902a93c378e027d36783f,随例增减IzVjNmVjYTI5ZTYyYjg=,凡八百三十二章JjVjNmVjYTI5ZTYyYzQ=,门房之诛十有六MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKy8272i,大辟之罪二百三十五ce56e6be8530660d7cc2fa7694f62725,刑三百七十七;除群行剽劫首谋门诛25e129559f8a65dcbc14d1cce728dfb32c82d7ee,律重者止枭首JjVjNmVjYTI5ZTY2ZDQ=。”XjVjNmVjYTI5ZTYwMDY=

 由于刽子手在古代被认为是一种贱役MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKy9y7Gi,所以c792a77c182909f68d33cc7345d06295,正史中描述其生活的文章也并不多MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGW9pb2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKqwpcui

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKqwtb2i

“侍卫们哪由他分说将他按在地下QDVjNmVjYTI5ZTYzMjA=,算是叩过头JjVjNmVjYTI5ZTYzMmQ=,便推出棚外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGW9tbGi。到行刑的地方MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkK2wzrmi,叫他跪下0e3c74b8d3408ac5cb7f82c53f4e3776,肃顺仍是不跪MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkK2xpcui,那侍卫又将他按倒e22237379a703db9d7f5b704853c2b7d006554a5,肃顺又破口大骂f9b46cf3f56c80ffb516bdff051163f2,还拿十分龌龊的话JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTYzNzk=,骂西太后MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGW9y7Gifffdf7207690aac7e6e9254d9c7831c5eb7dc017

36ee2a247e34a23fe0004964a45a39ad

睿亲王仁寿dfe62b1a7b9454c1d5d8729e291c9befc601770b,与刑部尚书载龄MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkK2ypcei,见肃顺骂得太不成话了02509e55f7c7d97e6640c98ad1b8c7e5,便叫刽子手拿刀口搁在肃顺的嘴里635f28217bd00e3850de282ae4f6b2b2,舌头也割断ef7ba7dfb687c218fb0e3f07f4361063eaa76dea,牙齿也磕落IzVjNmVjYTI5ZTYzY2I=,他满嘴流着鲜血fdf64cc4de2387649c87f1232da21657de7c6e77,还是骂不绝口KjVjNmVjYTI5ZTY3MGE=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKqxpaWi

KjVjNmVjYTI5ZTYwNTg=

睿亲王仁寿便叫刽子手赶快斩决9bff0395c4cfbd25a90d77ea943043fc,刽子手奉谕之后aa6509de08f7778abc89754aa3315c4d06594178,也等不及时辰a3e428912afe9dbf22f2a8fd2be3446cd872fb80,便举起虎头大刀b4927b0139a67c849d81ba1996e81690,嚓吃一声5143bf05992a1b7295cdc02d359f1997e9ad9568,把肃顺的脑袋砍了下来MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGawqLGi。顿时两旁街道上瞧热闹的人JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTY0MzU=,都欢喜震天81ad9452351c18995e30e643642bee1ffe658442,如雷贯耳ITVjNmVjYTI5ZTY0NGU=,人人喝采7e6395a2f3a260fae3893bdddbd8181b22f58268,无不叫快QDVjNmVjYTI5ZTY3MjQ=。”KjVjNmVjYTI5ZTYwNjU=

 而大家耳熟能详的戏剧《窦娥冤》中963603020faed168fe92eb0867e720fd3ea58087,对于行刑动作的描写则十分简略:6af4e4d0ca6af63d6c8a462adddae564

 “〔刽子做开刀NWM2ZWNhMjllNjQ3Nw==,正旦倒科〕〔监斩官惊云〕呀29643b4402e54f163a206e13d8546a618e8069f0,真个下雪了d17da6e21c2a7dafba053e71bfab50c3,有这等异事!”NWM2ZWNhMjllNjA4Ng==

ITVjNmVjYTI5ZTYwOTM=

JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTYwYTA=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKq8ta2i

2c902ca3bc41c776473ce54ca9a0e8a21db3ec41

开刀就是戏剧中砍头的动作QDVjNmVjYTI5ZTY3MzE=。在流传至今的戏剧表演中a1329450a9c89ef3f7cf99c280fb7cf8,这一幕就是演刽子手的做一个砍的动作1a30ecac98834e114870995e7f69bbe8,然后8e8ca9ce5882f058b61a841a559600c0,窦娥就扑通倒下了ecab330db970d0ca557698f13294ac4f。只是讲了砍头这一动作IzVjNmVjYTI5ZTY0YzU=,也没有对于喷酒的描述9794e6b5ce9ad511874e667e3090c84eMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKq8zq2i

 不过至少明确的是572326a357e044ad74cd1d398ad16b20,刽子手并没有那么多拖拖拉拉的动作ca19da8cc0e7f8f90803f489b1bb2de4,往往手起刀落就完事了b38f88570d2f23cb506887198e5fc3345d863bd6。除了古代的文学作品之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGO9tbGi,现代的文学作品也没有往刀上喷酒的描述NWM2ZWNhMjllNjc2ZQ==。例如莫言在《檀香刑》中的是这么写行刑过程的: 8b154ee3a8df438070e2085ce7e8f7d4

‘时辰到——’随着他的喊叫e7121b743fc297f938b50a63fb46b43d95667fda,大喇叭一齐悲鸣起来b576a31113286c3ebd16db2694cda4daf2bfa1e9,那些个马兵也都嘬着嘴唇91a8a0d6163b32925f04c1d9ff0ae7d13590d361,吹出了呜呜的声音MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGax26WiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKq9pcui

17c52082ee64bac4e08408725076f2e5be7e85a8

一个刽子手伸手揪住了死囚的小辫子KjVjNmVjYTI5ZTY1MjQ=,往前牵引着2a5c562809f8c13689064bef19d8cf10,使死囚的脖子直如棍子IzVjNmVjYTI5ZTY3OGI=。另一个刽子手af9b86be2a68b427675779bc460222da,用胳膊拐着刀JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTY1NGE=,身体往右偏转MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGSxqLGi,然后cbbc06e024a2ba32ae7fa275754da36197e1cc14,潇洒地往左转回bc2f5fae9db74aeff138425fbcc70f1e3caa1b3d,噌506819fa42d3fb9352b62f8447f1b5ce,一道白光闪过486a96bcbce48ce7559ab2aa613cc922,伴随着半截冤枉的哀鸣JjVjNmVjYTI5ZTY1OWY=,前边那个刽子手已经把死囚的脑袋高高地举了起来MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGayqLWiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKq9y8ui

7c1c4236b15c8b08938654c8413fc6fa

执刀的刽子手与他的同伴站成一排MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGS8tami,面对着监刑官11e8be76b0963cd7c018170116a0114169f5df11,齐声高呼:‘请大人验刑!’ITVjNmVjYTI5ZTYxMjA=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKuwy62i

1851年784b8f2bffbb73aa5461981abdad41eb33ebd684,英国驻华领事馆翻译密迪乐对于一次在中国目睹的行刑过程的回忆MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGS8k62i,应该是可信度比较高的的记载ccba80eff9ed5e4a2269bfa548fd86f9e7067340,其中也没有提到往刀上喷酒的行为dce5ea53749d3cad89d0f6a38908172e53254a68ce166ed209c43fee0440e9ccabd82d92

事实上ITVjNmVjYTI5ZTY1ZjU=,刽子手不会在行刑过程中有很多内心戏MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGa8uKmi。刽子手在首次“登场”之前往往要经过数年的刀法练习MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGS9y8ei,从劈冬瓜到削稥头582c0a129a6ec31dffff47f4905435a6,再到熟悉人的颈部关节82b9d8d4ab3bda8659f0258e446c5d42,就算这样af80eabd9265aed896e67cd2d8c5f21b00b3115a,在执行中也需要全神贯注才能够顺利完成“人头落地”的任务MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGa8y72id167152540f6edfa819db41dbca362cccd75938b

JDVjNmVjYTI5ZTYxNWE=

JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTYxNjc=

c2243ea2cf1790714dd23a82d2fdd15f

8f57eea2c4dccb580f5ca723c2e207c2a221606b

bc467d1d716d4d102ee8692a56d08cb98131e7c6

有观点认为刽子手出于消毒、使刀变得更快等目的会往刀上喷一口酒MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkGWwzqmi,这些说法是站不住脚的3b066cb27e78a457fbcfa15e55357683。不过祭刀、壮胆的说法倒有几分可能性JDVjNmVjYTI5ZTY2NDE=,但这并非所有刽子手的标配行为JDVjNmVjYTI5ZTY3ZGY=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKuytc-i

当然dce897591dbfa58fee727d17a7580acf863a581c,影视剧之所以都这么拍的原因QDVjNmVjYTI5ZTY2NWU=,或许是出于剧情需要JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTY2NmE=,使得整个行刑过程的表演动作更加饱满JDVjNmVjYTI5ZTY2Nzc=也或许0fdc5d20c32f6290a6902e75d06b3049e0faa930,就是为了给皇上派来的特使一个喊“刀下留人”的机会06a79634f5eff5e355094d097ae6605f05ede757e79796e7ebf07c317c45c10922afb1c6

cb39664d2f4ecf25d408d395b64f7f07

XjVjNmVjYTI5ZTYxZDE=

JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTYxZTE=

NWM2ZWNhMjllNjFmMA==

JTVjNmVjYTI5ZTYxZmQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEz7nOjYp7Zr6HkKu9zr2i

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