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砍头之前,刽子手真的会往刀上喷一口酒吗?丨脑洞问答

S.S.Zhao:古装剧里演砍头的时候KjVjZTRlOTdjYmJjMmE=,刽子手在砍头之前总会喝一口水然后喷在刀上ba56247750464de1c8023acfc2170df8,真实的历史中砍头前也要这样做吗?这样做有什么用呢?32d632fc929abd744ad5df034097b075

XjVjZTRlOTdjYmJhYmM=

平常也不喝酒的实习编辑 / 猛猛MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZu8zrmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZu8272i

砍头8820e7ef400009075f41d6bd02982a8aeb69d71c,在古代书面语中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ2wk7Wi,又叫“大辟”ITVjZTRlOTdjYmJlZDk=。正史中对于“大辟”的记载都比较简略4d06eaaf16cf913e1ca60e6f1a54a1216d89837f,对于行刑过程的记载更是少之又少7957db02acf9a5140282eb601ad0794c。例如《文献通考》:MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZu8k72i

 “孝文除口误eba190c84184dd49d983e9c13e43af27,开酒禁f9b9b593971f3d02e70b0a118cfd04c1。故事2a9bb7984ad423f17943c5289339af90607c87b3,皆斩裸形伏质3e1fdac6efd3212548bd276a427f3841,太和初MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ2xy7mi,制不令裸形c8139a45ccb9a0ebaa1d4756929b1092d5cf6caf。又令高闾修旧文QDVjZTRlOTdjYmJjNzI=,随例增减aea2efbbcea330c7747fd51e51990174,凡八百三十二章MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ2xk62i,门房之诛十有六c6c642920345e2eb8206e90f64d5f86c,大辟之罪二百三十五37fe7807fd1ff6ff04087c26e0222491,刑三百七十七;除群行剽劫首谋门诛MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ2ytcui,律重者止枭首6e6315536504b7f42ea57c70505e23b990120a0c。”3503aab7b5f5356e05f55eba0390a06887f3f6cf

 由于刽子手在古代被认为是一种贱役KjVjZTRlOTdjYmJjYTY=,所以JTVjZTRlOTdjYmJjYWY=,正史中描述其生活的文章也并不多15f87109f8c7ecc75015a26dd2d13304MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZu9tami

9baa3f71c3987b574d4ea2729d5b6a20814aea31

“侍卫们哪由他分说将他按在地下5107e182087879f840d2643e494ab612478043d8,算是叩过头f7d3905e97d0542c17b79b78729ebeed,便推出棚外KjVjZTRlOTdjYmJmMGE=。到行刑的地方9a93226755f05131d9645ee28cc32789,叫他跪下JTVjZTRlOTdjYmJjZDA=,肃顺仍是不跪JDVjZTRlOTdjYmJjZDk=,那侍卫又将他按倒IzVjZTRlOTdjYmJjZTA=,肃顺又破口大骂XjVjZTRlOTdjYmJjZTc=,还拿十分龌龊的话313af3a2d50e48a1b9ee799a6ff031ab4550a643,骂西太后ITVjZTRlOTdjYmJmMTI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZu9y62i

QDVjZTRlOTdjYmJiMDQ=

睿亲王仁寿ea80c3f84d57e23f7da97485f1d0797d2de87433,与刑部尚书载龄24c1e24b442e7f226c03c208275aefeb89e6b356,见肃顺骂得太不成话了MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKEqbiZgmiAmr2giKqxsqGi,便叫刽子手拿刀口搁在肃顺的嘴里20adb4519d7886829f42f69e4a903706,舌头也割断MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ6wtc-i,牙齿也磕落011ec4c2809e8970277c4719411e5c86af691b97,他满嘴流着鲜血1a029ab547962aeb3be60edaf136ecf1,还是骂不绝口c6dccaed9230a8243af06662654e6d1a8996c047XjVjZTRlOTdjYmJiMGU=

c22d2eefee3dc40a3d355836aeaab2bd

睿亲王仁寿便叫刽子手赶快斩决MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ6wzr2i,刽子手奉谕之后ac8eaa468245684f93ebfb6e5b6b46c0,也等不及时辰MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ6wk7Wi,便举起虎头大刀8c79185319511d607d3a972c5d4c1a9e,嚓吃一声4af291e909899814a7c2ba441e4a8398f1c4672b,把肃顺的脑袋砍了下来007f63b38420456e507e3f8a81566839。顿时两旁街道上瞧热闹的人7da767b9adec7cb31815b3b00de34d6336953126,都欢喜震天caa59bd1df69406a9c431855f2f303065b7f9293,如雷贯耳NWNlNGU5N2NiYmQ2YQ==,人人喝采1a0512b90ce72d2b002913ce39b0b28c,无不叫快3476e3b84122b2ef6466c5af86c03339。”4b16e45c200c52387e129f5938f5695c

 而大家耳熟能详的戏剧《窦娥冤》中KjVjZTRlOTdjYmJkNzk=,对于行刑动作的描写则十分简略:3f8c261a5ad30bcc931a59fb8ab0689c

 “〔刽子做开刀18de39df8996f89e91dd88080b19752f863e3d01,正旦倒科〕〔监斩官惊云〕呀IzVjZTRlOTdjYmJkODk=,真个下雪了JjVjZTRlOTdjYmJkOTE=,有这等异事!”ad988c85c979c5acedf4b07dc15d553677139e18

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKEqbiZgmiAmr2ggK2wsqGi

KjVjZTRlOTdjYmJiNDA=

fe35469ffea9177313bac511a018fdbf

d55f82739f5043391dac17802890e14c

开刀就是戏剧中砍头的动作QDVjZTRlOTdjYmJmMzU=。在流传至今的戏剧表演中ITVjZTRlOTdjYmJkOTg=,这一幕就是演刽子手的做一个砍的动作JTVjZTRlOTdjYmJkOWY=,然后9a6a426e64d57368a605919f8d97f665,窦娥就扑通倒下了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggaCw272i。只是讲了砍头这一动作4099e026cbe42556b359fa95822d7bc7,也没有对于喷酒的描述JDVjZTRlOTdjYmJmNDM=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZyxtaWi

 不过至少明确的是9258b3d5b582fbc0e48bab3a60625ac9,刽子手并没有那么多拖拖拉拉的动作a727e15a2f50a556b99c5a3f141b1ffa,往往手起刀落就完事了JjVjZTRlOTdjYmJmNGE=。除了古代的文学作品之外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ68262i,现代的文学作品也没有往刀上喷酒的描述5df5a4aeed14d0dd1f5ff3afaf7c276b。例如莫言在《檀香刑》中的是这么写行刑过程的: 80282468de0f97d474866eff02ef90b6

‘时辰到——’随着他的喊叫e7a4f30571393812fa3ee20190dcc06177d82048,大喇叭一齐悲鸣起来0ff674a84e1582fa5cf354a82e224530,那些个马兵也都嘬着嘴唇NWNlNGU5N2NiYmRkZg==,吹出了呜呜的声音90fe4bb7dd42746387e8db3e171b4186MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKEqbiZgmiAmr2ggGWwyKGi

62b20d99e2f24b62e4c706eb542005c2

一个刽子手伸手揪住了死囚的小辫子45897fd1ad448401c5dcbc158185c7af,往前牵引着MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ69uLGi,使死囚的脖子直如棍子053771449f206eab6e159d4fa83efe8c。另一个刽子手MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ69y7Gi,用胳膊拐着刀QDVjZTRlOTdjYmJlMDA=,身体往右偏转53c382353e181e53a60f76e2f6e8c3e3,然后JDVjZTRlOTdjYmJlMWE=,潇洒地往左转回7e241968f1379ba7cb06357c3a3038321d699ea4,噌MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ-wy8ui,一道白光闪过a042e9d0b5eadd62d5521b256144a26eb9d011b4,伴随着半截冤枉的哀鸣d4ea82117721c931cb61d8dd9aa3cff496601ba2,前边那个刽子手已经把死囚的脑袋高高地举了起来MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggaCxy8ei75e44ccff07667ec8800973fc7752bae7f6f41ac

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZyxk6mi

执刀的刽子手与他的同伴站成一排932c94badfb4594ed026221ffcc9660b,面对着监刑官7f90ad07df2d70b636d97264e395d22c,齐声高呼:‘请大人验刑!’JDVjZTRlOTdjYmJiODc=

cf267bf191a2597ed8fa402f64f4fe689454fb9a

1851年QDVjZTRlOTdjYmJlNjQ=,英国驻华领事馆翻译密迪乐对于一次在中国目睹的行刑过程的回忆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ-xy7mi,应该是可信度比较高的的记载2ae2910f609a095e8f784e13a290a6c7851112d9,其中也没有提到往刀上喷酒的行为130d2667319b9abbdb25594b71fcc2a7JTVjZTRlOTdjYmJiOTg=

事实上QDVjZTRlOTdjYmJlNzk=,刽子手不会在行刑过程中有很多内心戏JTVjZTRlOTdjYmJmN2M=。刽子手在首次“登场”之前往往要经过数年的刀法练习MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKEqbiZgmiAmr2gjGa82KGi,从劈冬瓜到削稥头25c5919644908e4deeceeb149f75e791,再到熟悉人的颈部关节XjVjZTRlOTdjYmJlOTE=,就算这样0b25a071117d789672b1b3c46bc1fbdb,在执行中也需要全神贯注才能够顺利完成“人头落地”的任务XjVjZTRlOTdjYmJmODM=JjVjZTRlOTdjYmJiYTA=

fe10aace335feaf50563c842fe4c11898fcd68f2

e0912377a58cebbe9d251944250b92ba218183bd

3558c61d9af98ff0ec76ac625dc022347e1a62bf

305e3b34dc25e3278bf5b66b66b32ca6

95fcb700aa0b761fa5a7441ed09e0b25ba341b6e

有观点认为刽子手出于消毒、使刀变得更快等目的会往刀上喷一口酒dd014bd83d39d16b98b3d6569834903171043559,这些说法是站不住脚的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggaCypbWi。不过祭刀、壮胆的说法倒有几分可能性MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ-8tami,但这并非所有刽子手的标配行为70a7df59f34d28ca10f4e65ab54f7e5c34882dc8fadbb9e27b5db799ed2b091da64e4c6d56278bcf

当然62393fcbda068898fa303896656c9558,影视剧之所以都这么拍的原因XjVjZTRlOTdjYmJlYjU=,或许是出于剧情需要IzVjZTRlOTdjYmJlYmU=,使得整个行刑过程的表演动作更加饱满034afa2d5564b5d8621c345bb73adeef也或许MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ-828ei,就是为了给皇上派来的特使一个喊“刀下留人”的机会MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggaCyta2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhtKEqbiZgmiAmr2ggZ-wsqGi

a3102aba64a7aeafe3bfbc2ca516b6caf2c966e6

fce694356265ac194d0d8ae0c55b52dd16bb3b5c

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZy9zrmi

XjVjZTRlOTdjYmJjMGU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCQtrXQg4qWm72ggZ2wqL2i

NWNlNGU5N2NiYmMxZQ==

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