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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

92a63b8268cd7065f53e0e6dd7ce32bc

472b800d8228aadb230d32d4f7168c14

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6KkZ2xk6mi

如今我们日常接触到的8885f70dbb7bd3356500e3d93f25228a,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计160d1dace7976ccdbe1611f942bea3c2e9fed952ITViNGVhZDMxZWZlNWI=

XjViNGVhZDMxZWZmNzA=

除此之外3df4870380e4267b5613e37482b5884c034c3de7,现在的温度计XjViNGVhZDMyMDI4Mjc=,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3gGexzq2i,非常多的种类1030cad271e07b2961e73636593e1cc6171256c3MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6KkaCyta2i

8d276873280c7546b573c35f80d82cc5

5dde2e9f97ee4ac76d566b7a0006381c39b37afc

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6deKy9tbWi

● 半导体温度计ITViNGVhZDMxZjA0YzE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbnMjnp_qb6deGSwpami

不过MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3gGiypami,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂ITViNGVhZDMyMDYzNjY=485ad9aaf51f509e3806b5f4cab44881fbdf70fa

6a63ac1e6bea0c9156dd3262662c66227c6d0a6e

1624年JDViNGVhZDMyMDJiOGE=,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3gZy8k7mi50c64d0c73362695fa36677522d3a6f7

JTViNGVhZDMxZjBhMTQ=

最早出现了“温度计”这个词4b6043a2ac0b844ef9e635217e80a497MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbnMjnp_qb6deZuxtbmi

fe3dd5986c4ba60c856206a0a18fb9ba04ce5ba2

不过10c542dcaab0892b77c0b519aaabcfc3c08b9bd4,史学家通常把温度计的发明cf1e065a55e9ec05680446dc80d8961641486bbb,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略e6cee0d1dd5253068e3f12332ed6207a6628f6c8MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQuanPgbB4nrF6hGaxyKGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6deZ6ytaWi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbnMjnp_qb6deZ-yuLWi

KjViNGVhZDMxZjEwOGQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQuanPgbB4nrGHeZ6xyKGi

● 伽利略5364e9b5825f9fd276e392f5af4c7c8f

ea03825b380210884689d69380484d00

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录0c2d63dcaa078d29c388bd1cf23f07c8,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器30cc3d11cb62060c895cbe8be838ab4a4c265f30

JDViNGVhZDMxZjE1ZWM=

玻璃管一端开口8b4741ccebe5c674fd2f539878f55a1c0b357df6,一端是玻璃泡042aabf604f8901ee9043beca4ab2698,把开口的一端插进水里270439609f41141a7818245aa3f56caf737d39a5,加热上方玻璃泡MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbnMjnp_qrF3hK2yuLGi,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升b2299c2759733e6d22bf6c3e133deaa3JTViNGVhZDMxZjE2ZmE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dfGawk62i

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度ITViNGVhZDMyMDM1OGQ=,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3hGS9paWi,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3kGW9pceiIzViNGVhZDMxZjE5MWQ=

IzViNGVhZDMxZjFhMmI=

3afc3c7c9f3ee904253287fa04cdda5c

f2ae2f21560200eec98019e51d82acc2

● 伽利略温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dfZ2yuK2i

eb3b903b312bf7fbdb858a8cdb0fa67ccecac530

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单NWI0ZWFkMzIwMzdkMA==NWI0ZWFkMzFmMWZjMQ==

ITViNGVhZDMxZjIwZTA=

依靠空气的热胀冷缩9ec2efe2dc26021bcc1af14b564aa33bKjViNGVhZDMxZjIyMDA=

150b4c64ebbdfc14e413659ecdf8eab7f13bb1d5

不过这种温度计不会太精确ecfae486e255029ecb77b8695e0e34335e73ea55,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响IzViNGVhZDMyMDNhMDk=,还受大气压强影响ITViNGVhZDMyMDY5YjM=caedb0e5e43127ef01a8161714ec77f2dad8e9f1

796d304f838ff86bdad8c4e5af0f04f5

于是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3hZuxqL2i,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计XjViNGVhZDMyMDZhYzU=MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQuanPgbB4nrGdjGiyoqGi

1650年NWI0ZWFkMzIwM2M0Yw==,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3hZ2ytami,把伽利略的装置开口封死93d82d70cd2251b02a05a001f352c0785611873f,上下倒置40ee9d31a89e4b3024116c1c21b6f48a,管内放入着色酒精b3d1a1943bb9b429e39d55a2a36674690b01c774,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度de4388b5189a01a2ffdc55d1e4ec06025a0dd01426ba10dd7048d0dd619f11d3

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点4cb7496d4d2bbb901eaf304f799a0df4ce3897cc,再均匀分割刻度NWI0ZWFkMzIwNmNlYg==e05d0650170304475d3c193c12817c52

845ad0080bdb148de5c892fb65ea9b1b20a98549

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQuanPgbB7qLKgiK2wyKGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dgZuwpbmi

e8328717cae902eb32e35c35e21bd572

XjViNGVhZDMxZjJkMTQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dgZ6xtcei

80d195275c96fe930cc1a9f03c916b45

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dgaCytbmi

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)88959771d7daec8598d2dfe5f6a6f65b16dbd6a8

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dhKu8k7Wi

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时IzViNGVhZDMyMDQyYjg=,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计7faccc020303bf536bda6aa7c3373aa3MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dhKy9uLGi

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3iKy9y8ui,很迅速地传播到了中国KjViNGVhZDMyMDcwMmU=ee10540c4b0545217915330d6f7fa67c

5a7a341d2182094933f741bf8e7248a2

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——2b92059ea162ae4846ddd766efacc3d3dcade0c4

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6dhGaxuK2i

欧洲传教士JjViNGVhZDMyMDcxNTU=KjViNGVhZDMxZjM5NTM=

9d62476cab19f74cf6a1f222b9d48544

最早向中国介绍温度计的f70ea73b9ed27c38be3f6736e1acd1cd,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁7ced64de0537a57c4c3351abeb65b730a3280fcfb4353fe212b81358bf33dce9691730a1cd9df8aa

XjViNGVhZDMxZjNjOTk=

805fbd22dafc3b9e15b579f3d001fb561ccf6f8b

JDViNGVhZDMxZjNlZTM=

b626671e5498415104910e0a2a9d72b7b54225c9

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbnMjnp_qb6diKqxpcei

● 南怀仁c69e3b69a80fe26245d6a1d096ac732bb0510d02

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3eKqxpami

顺治十六年(1659年)MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3iGSwtb2i,南怀仁来华8536e07b48788e5b58f107689a0e1e44,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监a7deba85522cbcd65ea6fbc86911e842,后升任工部右侍郎NWI0ZWFkMzIwNzM5Mg==MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbnMjnp_qrF3eKuxuKmi

康熙九年ITViNGVhZDMyMDQ5MTc=,也就是1670年JDViNGVhZDMyMDRhMzc=,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbnMjnp_qrF3iZuxk62i,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》ef679ea45e9b6d09ce253c8aa8e98254MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3eKyxk7Gi

e39943c283e3f37bf2df7ff18fb65188

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管ffc228e53d11cfc81dfd454b72beff7d25317810,球内空气热胀冷缩时25359d91aaacd96930f9779a896fc5eb4d094c9f,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降IzViNGVhZDMyMDRlYTA=,U形管一共有十个刻度XjViNGVhZDMyMDc1Y2M=e120010a093cf0ea36314559687f8aab11aeb184

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQuanPgbB7qLF3jZ29oqGi

和伽利略温度计一样XjViNGVhZDMyMDRmYmQ=,这种空气温度计并不精确MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3jKqwpaWi,但是对于当时的中国人来说18f5256c430531f5608b4730d294df3ae907bfc5,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了c76a4b66c570855fa7d659c992595ff57ccedf91ef5f7a50c0a44655f7aff0e0377ef903

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3eGewpc-i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3eGiwy6Wi

ITViNGVhZDMyMDBiMTU=

d26b8946a47b9e8880c637804f4d752e601b42e3

XjViNGVhZDMyMDBkNTY=

● 南怀仁制作的温度计333c6540e368e8569abc562354c9320f

十年后61b4ebd3517e303075962a039dc71b3790d8dca1,更精确的法国原装进口温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbnMjnp_qrF3jK2xqKmi,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝370bd25d6372e8d854ef923fe9c7e9578c0dbe04IzViNGVhZDMyMDBmOWY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3eaC9tbGi

1689年康熙南巡JjViNGVhZDMyMDU1NDQ=,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫c840e3cb8e755e179a176ba1fbd3998cb407ac49,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3jGWyuL2i献上西洋方物12种XjViNGVhZDMyMDc5MWQ=1bb59baaffe258231057889d22311301a720151e

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里6e6e2bf41a5b01c1a3c1228f4fe255bd71463ae8d0e1c7de791c68a25d3119f93781e6c8f3ccb7ec

db65a891930577c968b8d17bb2fe85243c065479

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种NWI0ZWFkMzIwNTlhYg==,余物退回XjViNGVhZDMyMDdhM2Q=JTViNGVhZDMyMDE1MzI=

ffabea2e89df8bbffb4a467d32d13c60ff04417c

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管d67a9df4bd0900e9d818742a8aa6fccf,万岁爷要收下e4d061e70a4f63d3b348f19e4c5e1268f4f62caf,奈途次难带JTViNGVhZDMyMDVjZTY=,先生往后遇便送至京师”b06a51009decbb404c796303a3ad80cad48c13c4MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3fGWytbWi

8265cbecb8dc1dfce305a3ea091f3c87

NWI0ZWFkMzIwMTk5ZA==

5fc21a786aab083d5354be02c0cd5bb56502f3a1

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型5637e405ddfb6f8b963b4070cc3080a1

f7d1943dcc7ff4f24a8ceb6bfb305b31407e4b50

1690年2月9a3a1f59020f6c9c43649c10f3a1bfe3,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿99c698ef89aa1e4da21fea25c2dbfd23IzViNGVhZDMyMDFlMzE=

6b369d063846a091e78a293c9e54f381

成为康熙的日常爱用品981a1a0b8b02c7f02784cb68059641432ac0d05dMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3faCyta2i

37a110f4533119c5483dd267aa5980e6b28840e6

至于它们在民间的普及MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbnMjnp_qrF3jaCxqK2i,则是二十世纪以后的事情了c8f61a79b1749bd3749e1d296a0c8312MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3gKu8272i

7ff9cc57ee3167f89b5401f51147a3c4

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbnMjnp_qrF3gK29zq2i

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