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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3gGeytcei

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3gGi9pc-i

f15f6419fc2a71e0115446a12dfffc8f98769ea3

如今我们日常接触到的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3o52xy8ui,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计IzViNGYyZmM4NGQ4MDE=NWI0ZjJmYzg0MmQwYg==

1d9094cd5c48ae4ab501b68afbf785469ff03224

除此之外IzViNGYyZmM4NDllNTk=,现在的温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3o5-yuK2i,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等d1e3015f0928e014c7d38f9a165393bb,非常多的种类f7ee6f5a3ab2ba3c5916a212faf7f967f0afd06c969871f180e74b9c357f278af2c2d9d6

KjViNGYyZmM4NDMwYjM=

22c86202150c67df9931b6557a88dfff

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● 半导体温度计e570cf310d0adebfaa391593db05a944

01da529e8d3df2fd520f5a3fad7940e1

不过711b3cf230f964753dc7565f0685a7eb56a9ed3a,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂XjViNGYyZmM4NGRhNDI=95c65aa4ce57e919a258f1479d1b59b3

d749b86215a6a7969690b11543ec6e47

1624年JTViNGYyZmM4NGEyYjQ=,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中7d5582d863f44dd7af14b790bef853131dc6073bf285786cfa86640760b359b5476f48f8

1e2d9567399a0a2604d0f2fce969f3e7

最早出现了“温度计”这个词bc323b9ff8f231997bb21dee6140e348b95e84da7479df3482859f42dee21f3e05864a5c01aef832

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQzK3RjbCZYbFlgaC9sqGi

不过JDViNGYyZmM4NGE0ZDM=,史学家通常把温度计的发明JTViNGYyZmM4NGE1ZTU=,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6iZyyuLWie3c73fb57e32e1a2c2ca53efb2eed2c3cc19ce80

a8a948eb642e003e9714a3d79f7ef9776e1fc8c1

NWI0ZjJmYzg0NDA1YQ==

95e0ced4706bb763b93273ece312e8c7

JjViNGYyZmM4NDQyYjY=

● 伽利略MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQzK3RjbCZYbJ3hKqxsqGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3iGOwy8ei

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录888c2ee40664a9591d37876cb7ba4b19806e3497,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器JjViNGYyZmM4NDQ2MTU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3iGWxtcui

玻璃管一端开口a9e6ff9e37d9d434bf300e1897f33223,一端是玻璃泡MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6fGexpcei,把开口的一端插进水里IzViNGYyZmM4NGFhMjM=,加热上方玻璃泡MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6fZuxy7Wi,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升f5fa8d6a85a3c8ff45a07ff44c1f651a86a5c6d07ecb9599e1d914cd13ae903ef8edf635

d541954b327653e7861cae7f486a0f5e07b33dae

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6fZyxk72i,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中c83f170585115e9d22fb48e4555a7964,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念XjViNGYyZmM4NGRlYjA=b97e42a56453e049a2f568f8a35e9035

8f8aaab149b34b306ee151e809a9f9078b07512b

JDViNGYyZmM4NDRjZDg=

JjViNGYyZmM4NDRkZjM=

● 伽利略温度计e3bca15554741f05c5858027eea175c8

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3iaCxpcui

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单KjViNGYyZmM4NGFlODc=d9c3cdb01fe473e16d12024e25c35dabcf076048

01a5d69fad98fd43d608d693c586d1a5cda39ee8

依靠空气的热胀冷缩a7135196a6c1b3e17c1a285f3eba5a9d916ecd58d820c73ede22a03557cff176a525c5ab4c2e9326

ea102f9efbc71b4f97b42f08c41ee9ad0f22c418

不过这种温度计不会太精确MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QgZaQzK3RjbCZYb2KjZ69yKGi,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响IzViNGYyZmM4NGIwY2E=,还受大气压强影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6jKqwqKmiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3jGO9pbmi

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于是4689eb8b1811817b1b4caa334bb0745f,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计5b456d69c761fa16b50cd5a1671c4fe43749ae95JTViNGYyZmM4NDU3ZTg=

1650年6c6bbcf656fe20abf11e535399db9357faea3615,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们ff06d2529605069bcb53e654015f03815754fd27,把伽利略的装置开口封死626d86079a1e9addd6431f6d5faa41ef,上下倒置MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6gGSxtbGi,管内放入着色酒精IzViNGYyZmM4NGI3MzA=,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度93d654485f92c18b33ed0000c1de61d56f3b7052MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3jGewzq2i

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6gGax26mi,再均匀分割刻度ITViNGYyZmM4NGU0MmI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3jGiwk7mi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3jZuxy7Wi

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了6b1db639850eef04681f92ccb8ad0f3e12b2dcdfee5fc4c1d17f19ab9fd49f2c6a99dc75721a438b

684503040c7664e5198c9ae3d5c409c0

dd4aeaec5c3b43b30e1ff967df99883e

KjViNGYyZmM4NDVmOGE=

8289f65b38b3ffe5b62961fbd3923f90

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3kKq9pa2i

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)NWI0ZjJmYzg0NjJjZA==

4ec17ee4b2f61f947427efc272ca0b99

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时f6246e5956c794ff29d87a298740dc0c09b87e21,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6jGSyqLWiMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3kGOw272i

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计f3ca0ba92a0925896cde3e382b84fe4a32f2238b,很迅速地传播到了中国MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6jGW8uK2i0b3a109d5c2b3c318cdc7f3a119d8e17

7c3ce923d390047efb924bf2504ac22b

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——b91f1568c05dfcbdb5e3660b37d4c62de9a30aff

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欧洲传教士MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6jGa826miccaa332c6a613efa07d7cd6ac4049b69

8147f156deec41c870c3c846255ab896

最早向中国介绍温度计的XjViNGYyZmM4NGJiN2I=,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁526e1732bd75b6fe93cacc2226183a8c2164a2a30bb272fce9e879d60dca2a4f109d9727

58412b4671bf64e504309dff80ba21d1

JjViNGYyZmM4NDZmNjI=

e999346daedcc431d34e9627928833e2

ITViNGYyZmM4NDcxZDI=

ITViNGYyZmM4NDczMDY=

● 南怀仁QDViNGYyZmM4NDc0M2I=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3mmOypa2i

顺治十六年(1659年)f9a82cf1269b4aafbe695150923d0b9ba51b1422,南怀仁来华d85a978fbe9d02baa7b988cdb2281538d89e60c8,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监IzViNGYyZmM4NGJlOTc=,后升任工部右侍郎7e2d1ba4b506bb852e9f6dfe9f9e4ef8KjViNGYyZmM4NDc2YjI=

康熙九年JjViNGYyZmM4NGJmYjg=,也就是1670年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6gaC9zq2i,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计0d193739aab6162e148ff4128cf371ecec1d4e14,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》605441e119902dce577146549520ffe2936e761a3fbddb600cb293e0469d954c8faca104

30dbae5f907e495734ea14db0059974b0b40e1a7

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管ea87f716d69e47d5acf721559542fd37,球内空气热胀冷缩时MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6hK2xqLWi,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降861e5b03fb4f91b4f8ced71cdea0575635dcea0b,U形管一共有十个刻度cdb75de76ca3a679f3e772c1d9ad599d5d4041d7MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3mmixy7Gi

081824dc3c6ebcb9612f55f211677da2

和伽利略温度计一样XjViNGYyZmM4NGM2NWM=,这种空气温度计并不精确1105e11695ab3b7104c5da1ea46324138f13e176,但是对于当时的中国人来说3ffd0f4d5d03e51cf8c33422414275f5e05ac56b,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6jZ6xpbmiIzViNGYyZmM4NDdjY2I=

17a82841473cf4698ebb76463cf54cb31e9112d1

6619982cd14281ab43933f1a111612fe98ad5a41

6a288ca6bf65bdc89fc54a06ad5857e51b7f017f

a440d728876e1129282e9168b3687a7c

fb87a80b36ba190147c205c435c98a4a

● 南怀仁制作的温度计52e53dea27d5fc2a44806adf09beb774

十年后KjViNGYyZmM4NGM5YTY=,更精确的法国原装进口温度计93279e2e4f7c823451b8d3fbc300dfab,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝XjViNGYyZmM4NGVmMDY=JTViNGYyZmM4NDg1YTE=

QDViNGYyZmM4NDg3MDQ=

1689年康熙南巡f03174dece0d7095fa46aaef69f2b6faf0b026ac,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫NWI0ZjJmYzg0Y2NmYQ==,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家6985c150f10fa12c1f17237e6b1ef2679eb78301献上西洋方物12种bc541f3f76bbff1b6c833f2216f7ea0bMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3nmaxtbGi

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里IzViNGYyZmM4NGNmMmY=7678284616d6e1d5db2fefd793e31d4d

7fc8b41708c87c630bc1d1acff48882c1d025f09

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种3381c603670d17b9ed2d43f57e6876d8,余物退回6710be9bd1168b0ce21538470ba94b6010d9fafeQDViNGYyZmM4NDhiZjU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3n52w28ui

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管11173827df657b084025c491a3b3a0f3,万岁爷要收下46b537a9e26d897084c7c06697384f51,奈途次难带46df7d34aca5e069072171ac4652caf508beb959,先生往后遇便送至京师”MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6kKuypami6bfc04b63787adb8ebd1ad7751d8bee1e9f3de57

56fe1d7fe66b3fe007faae74165155d0eb65bfc9

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3n6Cx27Wi

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● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型bff489a9777cd6d24ecb2ed7ed159b1108c2c8b7

01a29f269eb8e21fa46ff60e2f7d04e5

1690年2月JDViNGYyZmM4NGQ0YTc=,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6iGO9uK2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ3omOwtami

dfab615a6c3620a824ca8725c0a794eb

成为康熙的日常爱用品MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-EqbzdjqN_ZbJ6kKyytc-i1a6ae39e86a3070e85d7dd81870838dfda19d809

JjViNGYyZmM4NDk4YzA=

至于它们在民间的普及JTViNGYyZmM4NGQ2ZGU=,则是二十世纪以后的事情了1a76b43a43d83c680bfb6cd15dbbedffeb3eb1f14eb773fe12c620c11aecc8d7fd3fea36c747404e

0f896da0136e2d299590907d817c7586

17d5b9fe921154fe713b560053bdbb48

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