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可以知冷知热的温度计,是什么时候传入中国的?

7eaa5db4a9446b8f150ae894619b5689

4b78775cda43549dc4d4230a5be6958f

ccdb8d6aa0b99be9cfefd13e3616b5e648ab1427

如今我们日常接触到的MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrKdkKu9sqGi,主要是玻璃管温度计指针式温度计513a31dab9c44c31095a19512044236e3a6e3d08d757132d628291e72a01487e2dc31ec2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrJ6kaCx28ei

除此之外JTViMjdkYWE5NTY3ZmY=,现在的温度计6cfd5555213fb882275674cb3aa63b88,还有压力式、气体温度计、电阻温度计、温差电偶温度计、半导体温度计、热电偶温度计、液晶温度计等5ab6bf0f607d805379dd5020bb0fd2e25923fd01,非常多的种类d06d3690412e427c3075c43d1212b4079bc67b9aIzViMjdkYWE5NTAxNTM=

XjViMjdkYWE5NTAyNjI=

JTViMjdkYWE5NTAzNzA=

ITViMjdkYWE5NTA0ODg=

● 半导体温度计76f912d51f8849e1f433d483dfdcd0a878e99720

e0888baf8a4edf96baa9af4be70f9c4f5c529bc7

不过ITViMjdkYWE5NTZiMzU=,最早的温度计远没有这么复杂61eae46e2294d63e3fd50252bf88858eIzViMjdkYWE5NTA3YjU=

JTViMjdkYWE5NTA4YzI=

1624年b6fef5325935925e41ad113368997f7e,法国数学家勒雷雄的《数学游戏》一书中662444eafe262770f536ef311d11a2c97ff861f10d18e14da4ca8f38247b776846b2ac9a4545af3d

693140274a48f5927e3763280bd1452feee1d184

最早出现了“温度计”这个词MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKKfK2828eiff8d4d58739b21ee0497078c6deb8d619a2510fc

d4be1e55303ab7bea0a19e3b255206e4a3bbe02d

不过KjViMjdkYWE5NTZlNjY=,史学家通常把温度计的发明20cab54b8090887ff7a999096b270ab1c6c6d7dd,归功于稍早的意大利科学家伽利略JTViMjdkYWE5NWE1YjE=54a21e368bb1f0b85fe66edf27c4c51b

a13c4b8072bcf9aa3d67cd6f54edc384e500be7a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHeaCxtbmi

JjViMjdkYWE5NTExMzY=

887c15604980e34b103382e18e40079a20f9a3b7

● 伽利略MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrGHgGe8yKGi

JTViMjdkYWE5NTE0NmM=

根据他的学生卡斯特里的记录MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHkaC8y7Wi,1603年伽利略在演讲时第一次展示了能够测量温度的仪器JDViMjdkYWE5NTE1N2I=

df1d3b366caf1c35dcbb50e78dd5cfd6fe8e1824

玻璃管一端开口MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-DzMfPjY13ZrKHmqq8262i,一端是玻璃泡3644a83778ecacdeb3c6f468f6448093,把开口的一端插进水里KjViMjdkYWE5NTczYWI=,加热上方玻璃泡518f0f5c36de775f90fc4636370645c4,冷却时水就在玻璃管里上升JDViMjdkYWE5NWE2Yzk=KjViMjdkYWE5NTE3YTI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHfGa9tbGi

玻璃管上可能还标有刻度MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DzMfPjY13ZrKHmmO9zqmi,因为伽利略在《托勒密与哥白尼两大世界体系对话》一书中MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DzMfPjY13ZrKHmmWwpcui,已经使用到了“热6度”、“热9度”之类的概念dbefdbd2d286ff97eefdab9e553ab17d73de19c506d7e5beba934aedd4b7dfbf

fd65935aac6e93937916fd7d649b1551

ITViMjdkYWE5NTFiZjk=

9b0af151d7f3e211937a0d2683a402b8

● 伽利略温度计JTViMjdkYWE5NTFlMmU=

IzViMjdkYWE5NTFmM2U=

伽利略版的早期测温仪器原理十分简单6d26ec60fd519d22b6697ed52d852ba9164bcbd2dfdb29ff80b9c566e2693575

JjViMjdkYWE5NTIxNjY=

依靠空气的热胀冷缩d2f44a0a5707c0cce33ef3ab59f37de371a50a87MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrGdfZu9oqGi

5e9d93e9972aea069ff0a52bcce37b352b42d395

不过这种温度计不会太精确ITViMjdkYWE5NTc4ZjQ=,水柱上升高度除了受温度影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHmmiw27Wi,还受大气压强影响f419f495d42baa0a22ef62188f67e84c0d8772b1d47b954c98baecc879703070587dd86d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHgGO9qLGi

于是05d6ed4d7f274d100dc179e3d41c28b9,同时期的欧洲科学家们纷纷开始研究改进温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYr2KfGSwoqGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHgGS9uKmi

1650年daac84eb698b457d35af7e5e1a45a540,佛罗伦萨西蒙特研究院的学者们MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHm52xzrmi,把伽利略的装置开口封死XjViMjdkYWE5NTdlNTI=,上下倒置QDViMjdkYWE5NTdmNmI=,管内放入着色酒精MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHm6C8uLGi,用液体而非空气的热胀冷缩来计量温度MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKKfZyxzqmiebae5c0b69770f3322136174c0d0502b

学者们把严寒和酷暑时的最低温、最高温作为计温起止点NWIyN2RhYTk1ODE5NQ==,再均匀分割刻度a872caf9d6965d26a4c58a77389d7226296f3dc34a133cd5b48ac26195ac98401beb3ec10d9c59d6

bb61a3f112c6f68dc403017af776a136fc4f6a5b

与现代玻璃管温度计外表类似、原理相同的“佛罗伦萨温度计”就此诞生了KjViMjdkYWE5NWFlNTM=MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrGgfK2xoqGi

b4b708a0a8e1cb2c5f5b551c7d3da3ef750fff2f

642051f445a304b50fdd81ca4133605cef698e08

da583ba00b49c4c70c2984565d08d2fa

34c022eeecf044e67e977c92036925d3

6958f8384733fa0de071f6bfe52098e4

● 17世纪佛罗伦萨的温度计(左)和湿度计(右)e449a6895ccca8954666a5e8363d1801c6c48a52

5f4a6c217b769d98c91ea41c03b7bd94

和佛罗伦萨温度计同时JjViMjdkYWE5NTgyYjA=,英国和法国人也制造出了装水银的玻璃管温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKKfZ-ytbWiMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrGtgGi8sqGi

十七世纪西方科学家们发明的温度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHnqy9y6mi,很迅速地传播到了中国f375803e3265e2c7eaccea283bc959ea209cd999NWIyN2RhYTk1MzQ3Yw==

QDViMjdkYWE5NTM1OTA=

这又要归功于我知的老朋友——MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHhGS9pami

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHhGW9qL2i

欧洲传教士MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKKgKq8y8-i3366d9c3cf494e11861643df6352cb66

193e56bc8e85ecca87efe8f9aee6a1a96ae92f3d

最早向中国介绍温度计的c9f68106f77c957ab9d59a55d414c28e,是比利时耶稣会传教士南怀仁KjViMjdkYWE5NWIyYTk=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHhZuwuLmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHhZyw27Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHhZ2xuK2i

KjViMjdkYWE5NTNlNGQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrFljGixsqGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHhaC8uLWi

● 南怀仁df6a7fd9477d3d05d523935cf5a08ab112ecae1d

bf7346e81af05e9ce488ea8efa3bd3fe

顺治十六年(1659年)ef120cc61699b1cdb119434790f1a3a9,南怀仁来华f385b269790516a0907c89836c6d28b8,供职于类似现在国家天文台的北京钦天监10c9139f3ddea915827578d01be0a3a0,后升任工部右侍郎ITViMjdkYWE5NWIzYmM=ca96dd4815cf8873e988fb7da766ec17

康熙九年1f51b76f4a1a6b02e8c9000285dcc584,也就是1670年MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHnmixpcui,南怀仁在北京制造出温度计和湿度计MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHn5uw272i,图示还收入了《新制灵台仪象志》《古今图书集成历法典》dc41e6563a0f14fa223c91d4c8d31b7e5a95dd580a4884334730b3bf4d03ce7062499a5a6a5e8e6d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHiGSwzqmi

南怀仁的温度计是连通铜球的U形玻璃管MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrN6gGWx2KGi,球内空气热胀冷缩时c638ccc849d53aae6e08690e1667af47,玻璃管里的水柱随之升降ITViMjdkYWE5NThlNzM=,U形管一共有十个刻度JjViMjdkYWE5NWI1ZGI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-DzMfPjY13ZrKHiGWxpami

f19c4fc4a3b09d018501341fe269a800

和伽利略温度计一样MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHn5-8y72i,这种空气温度计并不精确MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHn6C8k7Gi,但是对于当时的中国人来说MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHoqq9ta2i,已经是非常新奇的高精尖仪器了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKKgGWwuLGie2afb027674b1df78d9edc686370f58d

d90c052b952ae5d0475743ac364465f6f8df5255

13ec21b49db67b835743116e41e35f13

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHiZy8k62i

0431b2834f6392ad20696a8661f8843f

NWIyN2RhYTk1NGVkZA==

● 南怀仁制作的温度计2c238c80caaabf4d8f5d7a5afefadb8b89f2bd08

十年后MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHoqywpami,更精确的法国原装进口温度计8cc0e45e150119f350e954355b81533b,又由耶稣会士直接献给康熙皇帝MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9js-DzMfPjY13ZrKKgGawy8-i8fea0be3ec3afe95799c33ec227581631078c87f

JjViMjdkYWE5NTUyMmU=

1689年康熙南巡JjViMjdkYWE5NTk1MTY=,意大利人毕嘉和法国人洪若瀚在江宁制造署行宫ITViMjdkYWE5NTk2MmQ=,也就是曹雪芹祖父曹寅家3e0c9f582fd2e1bf653d2cf6a666b32d献上西洋方物12种d710a22c1165e6ee1429174bf657b62dXjViMjdkYWE5NTUzNDY=

康熙在这12种西洋仪器里MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrOHmmiyoqGiJjViMjdkYWE5NTU0Njg=

ITViMjdkYWE5NTU1ODU=

唯独收下了温度计和湿度计两种KjViMjdkYWE5NTk5OGM=,余物退回0787d7f21aa6780878f0ccb1d2f067ecMDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHjGS828-i

65e7d06443f0c80d03dcd84e827a976fb7563143

黄伯禄《正教奉褒》记载说:“这二架验气管4785fef00bc79e13c3ba17bd01e99d2ef18cc702,万岁爷要收下XjViMjdkYWE5NTliYzA=,奈途次难带8606d4f84f0b7f330f95fdf689daff8a,先生往后遇便送至京师”QDViMjdkYWE5NWJiNDY=XjViMjdkYWE5NTU4Y2M=

264f184370f6f992c70543b8d10f68714697bd8d

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHjZuwy8ei

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjs-DzMfPjY13ZrKHjZywk7Wi

● 可信度存疑的江宁织造署复原模型MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrKKhGSw2KGi

06c42fab6022ae7836d3c5c9ff091d6a48db7f08

1690年2月XjViMjdkYWE5NTlkZjQ=,毕嘉和洪若瀚的这两架仪器正式进驻养心殿c8a3a7f5a5c1743ea25307be2e1c1e3a2a6ab83dMDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrKKjGewyKGi

dc93a858e20dec52cd92c486e3ffd1c4

成为康熙的日常爱用品ITViMjdkYWE5NWJjNjk=MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qgd-ElLXMjYqdYrKdeZu9yKGi

f979161abd5b1b17679ae861c3d185ce

至于它们在民间的普及5289202e8133ffd11064aedc73820026d2710c5d,则是二十世纪以后的事情了c515aaf9505b42718083775e5b4cbde26c96c6eeIzViMjdkYWE5NTYzYTQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9js-DzMfPjY13ZrKHkK29tbmi

XjViMjdkYWE5NTY1YzY=

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