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非洲猪瘟是如何传入中国的?

非洲猪瘟从去年年中以来就频频占据中国农业和食安类新闻的头条83c3c44051c2eb502938dc2a1cb097a1,不仅在养殖户中MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ2yqKmi,也在一般市民食客的心中激起了轩然大波0fac582911a948a99d4d63d7b9b3b7a504a1367455df68f11c7dc76c512981a9

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KjVjNDdiYTFhNzI3ZDM=

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▲一时间真是说什么的都有40705250e56f45388266f3129dbd1d02

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其实市民们大可不必担心JDVjNDdiYTFhNzJjOWE=,非洲猪瘟并不会传染给人类MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ2yuK2i,即使不慎食用了病死猪肉也不会有生命危险590ae039a511aa9fc7cf8dcaac8a3a32。真正应该忧心的是家猪养殖户MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ28tbWi,因为猪只要一接触这种非洲猪瘟就会得病ff7bc55e7b8b4fdd9eb26f82bc79f1ba,造成巨大的经济损失KjVjNDdiYTFhNzJmY2U=cd4221f1366f735287e3a9ffdfa50aa1dcf135ac

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ITVjNDdiYTFhNzI4MmE=

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▲猪瘟在这个世界上已经存在很久了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGewk7Gi

其实让养猪户们非常想不通的一件事情是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ28y8ei,非洲的猪瘟79327ac46f5786c29ff5d461a33ad0077a0f6f05,怎么就跑到中国来祸害猪了呢?22a3d5d7cc281ebf49a3475670a54059

是啊JDVjNDdiYTFhNzJjZDU=,非洲猪瘟是怎么来到中国的呢?ITVjNDdiYTFhNzI4Njc=

NWM0N2JhMWE3Mjg3MQ==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGex262i

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▲这怎么就从非洲一路拱到了东亚呢JjVjNDdiYTFhNzI4ODc=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGeypcui

非洲猪瘟不是“猪瘟”JTVjNDdiYTFhNzI4OTU=

在非洲猪瘟流行前JTVjNDdiYTFhNzJjZGQ=,世界上的养猪户最担心的猪瘟病是传统猪瘟MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ29qLmi,也叫古典猪瘟422691aab57907c7340acedd46114d1be8c9e894。名字虽古典04a7327211554dafbaa6a773761e0578,但这种猪瘟的历史却并不算久远KjVjNDdiYTFhNzJjZjI=,甚至可以看成是一场新大陆对旧大陆的一次报复dd9df0c6dffe7762b76811313770e0faMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGeytb2i

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▲来自西半球的神秘古典猪瘟...古典猪瘟于1810年最早爆发于美国e211a6fbd50d83b05cbe9a1cd7c450f60655abed,是新大陆出现的猪类病毒性疾病372eddb1ddec0feb953a50f38899120e。其在1820年代传入欧洲MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ29zqmi,相继在法国、德国爆发9964cbec840c5a4ed9da821e9f3d38c7,一路传到了欧亚大陆的东端MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgaC9tc-i。虽然此后一百年0422a9c59b37c36db5d08e5adffb777192719831,人类开发出了针对这种猪瘟的血清MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ6wta2i,但古典猪瘟仍然没有被完全消灭JjVjNDdiYTFhNzJkMjU=,至今仍时有患病猪出现JDVjNDdiYTFhNzJmZmI=222e3173ab271753ffad630df00dc9b81d77e8c7

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▲古典猪瘟在欧洲的分布这一次出现的非洲猪瘟(ASF)和古典猪瘟并不是一回事00e8ec289554e940eeb525805943e4b6,所以说起这场瘟疫的时候可不能将其简称为“猪瘟”03d6627c220fc89b0b051e8dcfd88ad8f556498c,以免与古典猪瘟混为一谈c79a8352a527693c547ba2f1b8aaa2a2KjVjNDdiYTFhNzI4ZjQ=

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▲但是对猪而言e7924d12e7d91439c60721cd0bd068e59f460567,仿佛是同一个意思值得一提的是06d8815661008ed0c5fc5bf6ae1ce810524a3912,非洲猪瘟病毒(ASFV)倒确实诞生于非洲f73e37671562d3914dab68f31f715eef,和西班牙流感、香港脚这种和冠名地名其实毫无关系的疾病/症状比起来3a55464ae241b653934ae93c7e9ada58e4582d69,是名副其实的KjVjNDdiYTFhNzMwMGM=ITVjNDdiYTFhNzI5MTk=

JDVjNDdiYTFhNzI5MjQ=

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▲在猪的全球分布方面MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ6xta2i,非洲猪只占很低的比例JjVjNDdiYTFhNzJkNjE=,所以猪瘟病毒(ASFV)要想取得成功967c073e9fe68fe5cdf496bbba6eb381afed7629,关键是要传播到欧洲和东亚两大地区和几乎所有的病毒致病体一样519beb9be921b150a9b21a62b880146e,非洲猪瘟病毒进入病猪体内后3d602371914331b33c92eb622cbca77c,通过提取病猪细胞内的有用物质JTVjNDdiYTFhNzJkODE=,建立自己的“病毒工厂”QDVjNDdiYTFhNzJkODg=,生产更多致病体f98cdd04b266660ade36bf4e16c0c187,并通过体液、粪便等流出体外2257e26a601417cd2b3096621560afa3,继续感染其他健康的猪4c7120d8f61e6e654a16d143f774f718,在短距离内甚至可以通过空气传播MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKqwqLWiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGiwk7Wi

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▲这种环境显然很适合传播其实从生物角度来说467fda2212f50598e1c5c1076aaa317eaa4aa47a,非洲猪瘟病毒是一种DNA病毒QDVjNDdiYTFhNzJkYjQ=,相比于RNA病毒结构相对稳定MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ68y7mi,本应是适合开发疫苗的致病体类型MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKqwtbWi。但这种病毒的结构过于顽固7ddc2e3dbc60d1fcef2009a2da6f7492,人类并没有找到开发轻微毒性毒株的方法0102287ada796a2c3001455cbb97efa0870c0962,所以市面上还没有批量生产的非洲猪瘟疫苗QDVjNDdiYTFhNzMwMjI=bb8206bd7c5a9f18ecadd2a49226a45394b2bd1a

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▲一只猪就可以祸害一群猪JTVjNDdiYTFhNzJkZDI=,而且还没得疫苗可打这给非洲猪瘟的防疫工作带来了巨大的挑战MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKqwy7Gi。各国只能通过在外贸港口设置严格的检疫系统MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ69pbGi,甚至禁止从瘟病高发国家进口猪肉来勉强预防df01ec9c57deb4035eadb82a46812f3c324a4eff。然而这种预防方式漏洞百出1503cc1a61682a5c19520a6c1cf4b98f1c7cc400,除了人类会为了追求低成本走私病死猪肉以外MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZaElK3MgY13ZLGgiZ-xoqGi,野猪和一些昆虫也能带着病毒在国境间穿梭MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ69uLGi,让非洲猪瘟的传播面进一步扩大530bfdcfb97af5e8ad6fdf767466c7a435e0eb78MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGiyqLGi

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▲对于非洲猪瘟的“原产地”来说QDVjNDdiYTFhNzJkZmM=,病原可以长期存在于当地的生态环境中2e603520051e88890888f53303589d179c858196,并在合适的机会下不断向外输出....而这种猪瘟病毒的传播史MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-wpbWi,便是一次明证e0083d08cfc1649ace43e0e96e8d60257b6d441a443b33a476890349f54a16b1f2dc6d0e

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从非洲到欧洲MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGi8k7mi

非洲猪瘟病毒最初出现在撒哈拉以南的非洲ac99429458d4d3da3f096bb37aba190b。当地的野猪和疣猪身上经常携带有这种病毒d83415ef1c28e3b3792c0da168a4df440b652da6,而以吸野猪血为生的软蜱则成为了病毒的传播介质MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKqxpc-i。在从病猪身上吸血之后ITVjNDdiYTFhNzJlMWE=,蜱虫会在猪群中跳跃转移JDVjNDdiYTFhNzJlMjI=,在吸下一只野猪时将病毒带入其体内616d177597ad5ce3b6c25b8eb666ec58a0db12d9b6b18d58138a4021ca2ad05a176e25de69a97edf

野猪、疣猪和软蜱显然都更喜欢温暖湿润的环境ITVjNDdiYTFhNzJlMjk=,而由于撒哈拉沙漠的存在MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-wzqmi,南部非洲的很多疾病都难以传播到欧亚大陆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-w27Wi,直到大航海时代加速了微生物之间的交流JDVjNDdiYTFhNzMwNWQ=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgGi9tami

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但是这并没有造成非洲野猪的灭绝1f8a9bf93e26f9baebc174f1b64e77e0,因为这种病毒带来的症状只会影响到幼年野猪MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-xpbGi,成年野猪很少因感染而死JTVjNDdiYTFhNzMwNjY=497745115a6ec0f1e3fff951db7f999743d86b5d

ITVjNDdiYTFhNzJhMTM=

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▲只有小才会被病毒欺负不过随着病毒的进一步扩散QDVjNDdiYTFhNzJlNTQ=,在非洲殖民地养猪的英国人开始感觉到了不对MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKqxy8ei。家猪对这种病毒的抵抗力不如野猪18e5b30d2939c8b8e3284d0f2a842c3a7c36aabd,一旦感染之后MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-xuLGi,无论成幼JDVjNDdiYTFhNzJlNjk=,都会出现发烧、心跳加快、分泌粘液、消化道出血等症状ITVjNDdiYTFhNzMwNzY=。最急性和急性感染死亡率高达100%ITVjNDdiYTFhNzJlNzA=,而且传播特别迅速7bf5285136774b71c49a92487036dad3,养猪场损失惨重7a7126e7118bee30ca54e9c524f46b81beb238c6f57b0a7ac8f3e79ad8b09c1865ace6f4

1921年NWM0N2JhMWE3MmU4NQ==,当地兽医无法控制疫情30a91afa1d9abdf869d75b20f37317c768e0dd15,只能将其记录下来22aaefc62c392bf8a46de7d91d16e4f9e22c114b,发表在《病理学》杂志上MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-ytbmi,称为“在英国东非(肯尼亚殖民地)发生的一种猪瘟”85455284c7251a430ce1a64322cc2c52f8ef1436MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZuw27Wi

有兴趣的同学也可以去瞅瞅MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-yuLGi,一个网址:https://zh.scribd.com/document/291348219/On-a-Form-of-Swine-Fever-Occuring-in-British-East-Africa050cab7cd6b754c8f5ac0fb46af08861

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZuxpb2i

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60年代244c6a593b7956c8c55a48c2d515c8e4,在东非和南非肆虐的非洲猪瘟开始从传到了西非19e4729554608434b4923ee0006c67c3,塞内加尔、喀麦隆、安哥拉(前葡殖民地)等国分别发出了预警0210c29dc09ebf561b5383a2be8ff659。1996年51033a6a1e829d615484a14af03102700fc90b18,非洲猪瘟在科特迪瓦出现标志着席卷西非的大流行的开始MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKqyqL2iMDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZuxy6Wi

而与之几乎同时期的发生的事162276b8f3efa5f1c417e54f430a6fcac3216eec,则是非洲猪瘟与1957年第一次进入了葡萄牙407ecb5278a2cef6327606842e73123b1d5e8cfe67c7c82d0eef880072f44ca119759c90864e27af

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▲撒哈拉沙漠走不过去72a7a5b7c294d77c2004f1ad31336fca,但是可以坐船坐灰机MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-8k72i,葡萄牙是他们的欧洲第一站事情发生得很蹊跷JjVjNDdiYTFhNzJlZTE=,一家航空公司将未煮熟的猪肉料理航空餐当成泔水送到了里斯本郊外的养猪场MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKq8taWi。吃了受污染饲料的当地猪很快感染了病毒MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-9ta2i,成了病猪a8363c98487f49adf441f0017339799b541aac1b。西非曾经是葡萄牙的殖民地MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ-9uKmi,两地一直保持着较为密切的联系KjVjNDdiYTFhNzJlZjc=,虽然这次疫情被扑灭IzVjNDdiYTFhNzJlZmU=,但进入西非的非洲猪瘟总会再找机会登陆葡萄牙的818e618f4ff707205b57eed21875f4ffa3713836278a11806bf700fce27c9990d2c1a772e35e591e

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▲源头上一直颇为混乱IzVjNDdiYTFhNzJmMDU=,想在末端防住就很难了1960年MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZaElK3MgY13ZLGgkKqyoqGi,葡萄牙和西班牙双双爆发非洲猪瘟MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKq8zqmi。为了根除非洲猪瘟的传播497c86ea82b73cb5dec2c8f073c8c2fe3fa11fe8,西班牙政府还大刀阔斧地进行了农场现代化改造917392160a6dd5d7d2d4385ecfe5dcb4,以隔绝蜱虫的影响fb077eba93fecebdd2de26cbfea5c91e6587ef76。然而效果只能说是一般0c67c2d541528bc9f7c49eee3ff555ed,病毒已经在伊比利亚半岛扎下了根QDVjNDdiYTFhNzJmMzI=,而被污染的猪肉和猪饲料仍然在欧洲大陆上接力2d8a2f1664a8b064b3ba23618d72fbc1QDVjNDdiYTFhNzJhYzI=

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f0b3463efc77fa27beff518efd8cdbfefcf3b7c8

▲非洲猪瘟+蜱虫在成功拿下伊比利亚半岛后64f239a14cdd6ffd2845bc1d857c3417,整整肆虐了30年之久此后d2a22e65d649654a87d541bbcd91b569,马耳他和撒丁岛同样因为飞机传播病猪制品出现了非洲猪瘟JDVjNDdiYTFhNzJmNGQ=,法国和比利时也未能幸免MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKq9pbWice19c7ef3513023892044c90c33e518a

经过将近30年的治理f8af76c85a07537cfd952cf4e035e712,非洲猪瘟才在欧洲大陆上勉强绝迹MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKq9qLWi。除了撒丁岛以外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgaCxtcei,欧洲各国都宣布已经正式消灭了非洲猪瘟5e2116e5e634c5b24e7adf688924d108bb41d5f7866895883c8355473cab4210e0e38341bde5bd5a

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZu9uL2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZu9y8ei

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZu9zr2i

QDVjNDdiYTFhNzJiMGU=

▲这一波攻击也算是把西欧折腾得够呛除了欧洲fdf9bb49f25cf41abc7adcf569e3a8bc,非洲猪瘟也登陆了岛国林立的加勒比海地区33aab79a9ba8d43ebaf020b7b8d6e3f95a3a9b2f,尤其是在古巴b1cbb069be0984cce2ea1560bc97db2286f631f0。有阴谋论认为b993993b884a55ec5f7f771e56a62ac2,和非洲八杆子打不着的古巴之所以爆发非洲猪瘟是因为美国特工将毒株带入了该国6d07efb12b18d090505127b9d7280efe,旨在推翻卡斯特罗政权ca1c8f9db13130adb1d5007e960b6073610da41a。无论这一消息是否属实MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgaCxk7Gi,非洲猪瘟对卡斯特罗的打击确实是巨大的b47f064a60513f8428f90751c8b81715186367c9。古巴在70年代扑杀了50万头猪才终于消灭了疫情MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKthKuwpbmifa0a5561aafaa49d0ceeb7d196db33e7

a20a109e1ed66565ec7cac2e8a4821a3

NWM0N2JhMWE3MmIyNw==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZaElK3MgY13ZLGggKy8sqGi

bad792fc3a6b8afb48b86fde056963c1

▲虽然猪瘟可能影响了古巴的共产主义建设KjVjNDdiYTFhNzJmODk=,但是古巴人民也在猪湾沉重打击了美国侵略者e91aa3ddef07178718593352f0c7077741ace6a9,算不算扯平了d1119583b5d28face051c8da8f5404f704a7de17

87f0086378ecb3ab17798a65de6fcdde61585b9c

JjVjNDdiYTFhNzJiNTA=

be25915851b13c4a23511c19a1cb9635e8f7e8ea

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZyxtcui

JTVjNDdiYTFhNzJiNjU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZyxy72i

91e916aecd2debbc445cc333e8c0fcda

▲一旦病毒跟着野猪翻过了高加索山7610163d150c81f705ff9f9e12e7bbae,那可就“广阔天地大有可为”了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZyx27Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZyxk7Wi

ITVjNDdiYTFhNzJiOGI=

NWM0N2JhMWE3MmI5Mw==

85d700e5f045e6f5aa18ba64dddc8e64

502165233aa807611186c490eee4f7b93c3be45a

NWM0N2JhMWE3MmJhYw==

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZy8uLWi

JTVjNDdiYTFhNzJiYmQ=

6f8cde968125d157234ba58fd00847b2

JDVjNDdiYTFhNzJiY2Q=

JTVjNDdiYTFhNzJiZDY=

JjVjNDdiYTFhNzJiZGQ=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZy9qLmi

31ae02692dd2cace9eb36058d4ac8089

fa719dda776f724f3dc54a928959fc0ae9e4ca3b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZy9y72i

8f3f42e8840e40a380e7960bec93f691

55e512c9c638158f17a2643193a15a218cd9b126

▲俄罗斯病猪处理61a9d7d1dfd08eff564ddbfc3d271f94

9dd2e3d4ecb308f5b14cacf82d5896ce

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ2wy6Wi

83ecc065aee2bb881c5fb73d02801fd5

03696d63a28ab291dc3fa7cb913bbbaa9d006063

ITVjNDdiYTFhNzJjM2Q=

182d0d6363079b994b80779dfd4a7c0b7f5c45a1

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ2xpcei

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ2xqL2i

但谁也想不到788d4c51f32a30ace6d461d64ceedf5c,几十年后ITVjNDdiYTFhNzJmYWE=,这种顽固的病毒会卷土重来f21802a70beee0642349e583de33b4690449fd9c,而且来势更凶MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZaElK3MgY13ZLGtfKuwoqGie3a20c48c8ca7e032ceb1660691bfed6

JjVjNDdiYTFhNzJjNjU=

2c766d3aabd92412f80fecd6a4d955e9

XjVjNDdiYTFhNzJjNzU=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCEpsfNjYp4mbKtgZ2x272i

 

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