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非洲猪瘟是如何传入中国的?

非洲猪瘟从去年年中以来就频频占据中国农业和食安类新闻的头条e52f552038df3462c7b9475a0fbb7965d71b39ec,不仅在养殖户中cab58c2c55c811a59709201f5305c1572109e5cc,也在一般市民食客的心中激起了轩然大波MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qid2FqbyYg3qMnLN6iZ682KGiITVkMDhmODg2ZDg1YTQ=

XjVkMDhmODg2ZDg1YjA=

JTVkMDhmODg2ZDg1Yjk=

f1d6a245df78f1551b560ae5f08380d7593a6f7b

▲一时间真是说什么的都有JjVkMDhmODg2ZDg1Y2E=

427151b553b03d253d4514288d496ee5088e0f9d

其实市民们大可不必担心MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5u8y6Wi,非洲猪瘟并不会传染给人类7c7ca0492afea03085bd83f08968b87ce6f6483f,即使不慎食用了病死猪肉也不会有生命危险41f9dadd7262489d2c8d4d071d32c080。真正应该忧心的是家猪养殖户095d9ebd9501228cbde321c1dfff39d6,因为猪只要一接触这种非洲猪瘟就会得病d9877eb0ed46620a7e1d769d319ae166,造成巨大的经济损失JDVkMDhmODg2ZDhkZjU=MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmS9pbGi

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▲猪瘟在这个世界上已经存在很久了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmS9y8ei

其实让养猪户们非常想不通的一件事情是30991dd303e2114c2f99a7c06d28fa2d,非洲的猪瘟MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5u9qK2i,怎么就跑到中国来祸害猪了呢?c894f3b219068269bc891258c0d27eb3

是啊JjVkMDhmODg2ZDhhZTk=,非洲猪瘟是怎么来到中国的呢?22efabecfe77bad5fddfa9980a554baa865b42db

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmWwtbGi

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▲这怎么就从非洲一路拱到了东亚呢KjVkMDhmODg2ZDg2MzQ=

da66ac5b6c1b1e04cab8c3fd2ad16e757db3a793

非洲猪瘟不是“猪瘟”ff1dc4fd75bccbecf7c291bbac84ff7e4572942c

在非洲猪瘟流行前MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5u9uKmi,世界上的养猪户最担心的猪瘟病是传统猪瘟QDVkMDhmODg2ZDhhZjg=,也叫古典猪瘟MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n569y72i。名字虽古典115e734b40d8259d5da852dfc385931d,但这种猪瘟的历史却并不算久远NWQwOGY4ODZkOGIwYQ==,甚至可以看成是一场新大陆对旧大陆的一次报复MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-wpaWifdda84929604a21005d3571ea5861b07

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▲来自西半球的神秘古典猪瘟...古典猪瘟于1810年最早爆发于美国59dbdf3d4185f5c6a7f73aaa4c253589469bce1e,是新大陆出现的猪类病毒性疾病MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-wpcui。其在1820年代传入欧洲MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5ywtbGi,相继在法国、德国爆发ITVkMDhmODg2ZDhiMjE=,一路传到了欧亚大陆的东端NWQwOGY4ODZkOGUxOQ==。虽然此后一百年869237127a5608c025db5949bf9fc912533c753d,人类开发出了针对这种猪瘟的血清a03f799aef4535bceb95ef9fbfb17d40,但古典猪瘟仍然没有被完全消灭JTVkMDhmODg2ZDhiMzY=,至今仍时有患病猪出现f35077731136b99626b9fcfa4eb831ca92d51c5d428a813ec1cb70fc5e850c03

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ITVkMDhmODg2ZDg2ZDg=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmW9qKmi

▲古典猪瘟在欧洲的分布这一次出现的非洲猪瘟(ASF)和古典猪瘟并不是一回事d0d56d0adbf0d243a6d786dad54621ba0afe638e,所以说起这场瘟疫的时候可不能将其简称为“猪瘟”71df8f6217af6a7c15b5741cae08dc705877c7f6,以免与古典猪瘟混为一谈ddcc0d1db2f20b970d524434732ed108IzVkMDhmODg2ZDg2ZjI=

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▲但是对猪而言7a5986d34d491fe299bc72468f9cbe16,仿佛是同一个意思值得一提的是6e119ba61d6991c5b07c3ed297e655c94b2ef52f,非洲猪瘟病毒(ASFV)倒确实诞生于非洲IzVkMDhmODg2ZDhiNWM=,和西班牙流感、香港脚这种和冠名地名其实毫无关系的疾病/症状比起来NWQwOGY4ODZkOGI2NA==,是名副其实的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-wzrGiJTVkMDhmODg2ZDg3MmE=

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▲在猪的全球分布方面c69abc30ed9b83e300753baef2da3d12,非洲猪只占很低的比例NWQwOGY4ODZkOGI3OQ==,所以猪瘟病毒(ASFV)要想取得成功MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5yxk6mi,关键是要传播到欧洲和东亚两大地区和几乎所有的病毒致病体一样949452ee4ccca6b76befe99e56c123d8,非洲猪瘟病毒进入病猪体内后00cd433c1bd5e393381ad2f1fe5c5f8b,通过提取病猪细胞内的有用物质67d8997aecb8e807e08307eff1fd24e4,建立自己的“病毒工厂”9e8b81907b7b1641054ec8a81acc851680640201,生产更多致病体31018d8b3c51aeae8edd8730f91e046a08137178,并通过体液、粪便等流出体外daa1ecd05286b723af2142c0deb170ac,继续感染其他健康的猪47663d4234c9ff579d3668eedff106c845475d72,在短距离内甚至可以通过空气传播76a7a29192b7056113eddf6e8876f7006a13e14037a97d40de76a2028b7fa7c15ef2fdc7c70e8026

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▲这种环境显然很适合传播其实从生物角度来说a0724941b89ff62a8c6eaae93e0ebf26,非洲猪瘟病毒是一种DNA病毒MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5y828ui,相比于RNA病毒结构相对稳定2fedf98263fcf5d2730410c80b3181af,本应是适合开发疫苗的致病体类型KjVkMDhmODg2ZDhlNDU=。但这种病毒的结构过于顽固JTVkMDhmODg2ZDhiZTA=,人类并没有找到开发轻微毒性毒株的方法MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qid2FqbyYg3qMnLN6gZ-w2KGi,所以市面上还没有批量生产的非洲猪瘟疫苗6632ee4acd237c3f1c74a3a2e543e4479b68efc1NWQwOGY4ODZkODc3OA==

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▲一只猪就可以祸害一群猪2b4ef066c0f5049023ffdb4e934be63901084efd,而且还没得疫苗可打这给非洲猪瘟的防疫工作带来了巨大的挑战IzVkMDhmODg2ZDhlNTU=。各国只能通过在外贸港口设置严格的检疫系统f3e6b041cbe567991bcb6a6e12a256aa0226e7bc,甚至禁止从瘟病高发国家进口猪肉来勉强预防MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-xtb2i。然而这种预防方式漏洞百出b8c5a8e97efb756a3bb3f3bc02487a18ef4eb21f,除了人类会为了追求低成本走私病死猪肉以外MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n52wpami,野猪和一些昆虫也能带着病毒在国境间穿梭224909a222b9c1d0939dbe00cadc45887c2fc284,让非洲猪瘟的传播面进一步扩大481263af3e8581376e217eccf761d62eMDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmayuL2i

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▲对于非洲猪瘟的“原产地”来说34dca975d8da379fad9ca8718f7dc80e,病原可以长期存在于当地的生态环境中89c3c3ff313f2e1bf3bc57173d173c52220a74bf,并在合适的机会下不断向外输出....而这种猪瘟病毒的传播史NWQwOGY4ODZkOGMyOA==,便是一次明证MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qid2FqbyYg3qMnLN6jGW82KGi77ed2a801f0a660b3955fa65a88a885c071a62b5

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从非洲到欧洲56cfbf921c456f6c4f44bc90109124eb83578bde

非洲猪瘟病毒最初出现在撒哈拉以南的非洲ce7b0108a466fc5c5965cd8bc989409d。当地的野猪和疣猪身上经常携带有这种病毒3c9eea9ed3b9c95cbfe4cf6eee146c93,而以吸野猪血为生的软蜱则成为了病毒的传播介质MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-xk7Gi。在从病猪身上吸血之后JDVkMDhmODg2ZDhjMzc=,蜱虫会在猪群中跳跃转移XjVkMDhmODg2ZDhjM2U=,在吸下一只野猪时将病毒带入其体内MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-ypbWiJjVkMDhmODg2ZDg3ZjM=

野猪、疣猪和软蜱显然都更喜欢温暖湿润的环境6a1dcd0656e23530c20a30b6da5fe9bd7e4502cf,而由于撒哈拉沙漠的存在QDVkMDhmODg2ZDhjNGY=,南部非洲的很多疾病都难以传播到欧亚大陆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n52xtaWi,直到大航海时代加速了微生物之间的交流MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-yqK2iJjVkMDhmODg2ZDg3ZmI=

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但是这并没有造成非洲野猪的灭绝MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n52xuK2i,因为这种病毒带来的症状只会影响到幼年野猪cccf10157a6d0bbf96553ddf1e36e1d9912150fd,成年野猪很少因感染而死f0b2e3c8d53a6ca7a23d947765d04c10a82a6a642f7eb95ce00232556188d44b

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▲只有小才会被病毒欺负不过随着病毒的进一步扩散fe2e28f9263410638b9af96db46589f4596e0ab7,在非洲殖民地养猪的英国人开始感觉到了不对MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-yuLWi。家猪对这种病毒的抵抗力不如野猪fd926711027b9c4d3b7f1ed45bfbf0ef3d576899,一旦感染之后9a7e4494f6ac8c9b41394fd5d3a27d12,无论成幼MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n52ypbGi,都会出现发烧、心跳加快、分泌粘液、消化道出血等症状JDVkMDhmODg2ZDhlYWQ=。最急性和急性感染死亡率高达100%15aafa0ae6c4ae58aa7fda0cf9498a646e2cc041,而且传播特别迅速NWQwOGY4ODZkOGM5OA==,养猪场损失惨重35a9a09b7c8ee3a7231e0297791210c4441972864f08cdab824c05577caf7a025aefe98f

1921年f4781902ab043fb2cda150a06882ca9912b77e06,当地兽医无法控制疫情55edef1ab1f315cb61b5117edb943daed60a23a8,只能将其记录下来fa91c59c8b903d56852be203282fe8d4e25fe5c6,发表在《病理学》杂志上ITVkMDhmODg2ZDhjYjg=,称为“在英国东非(肯尼亚殖民地)发生的一种猪瘟”ITVkMDhmODg2ZDhlYmM=9dad32b7b33d902395f77ff6ce052fb4ea8f7713

有兴趣的同学也可以去瞅瞅31c129f7c383e3e13b55d9d6b8986dfcc4b7212f,一个网址:https://zh.scribd.com/document/291348219/On-a-Form-of-Swine-Fever-Occuring-in-British-East-Africa460b0a704a798686fbcff6b5b697943f

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmextcei

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60年代MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n528262i,在东非和南非肆虐的非洲猪瘟开始从传到了西非XjVkMDhmODg2ZDhjZDI=,塞内加尔、喀麦隆、安哥拉(前葡殖民地)等国分别发出了预警MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-8zrWi。1996年3091c3c79c48d67a458fc03a98e9f5f87f280fd6,非洲猪瘟在科特迪瓦出现标志着席卷西非的大流行的开始QDVkMDhmODg2ZDhlY2I=2d439ecb9fc690fc05b0afb168388bfc

而与之几乎同时期的发生的事MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753n529qLGi,则是非洲猪瘟与1957年第一次进入了葡萄牙ITVkMDhmODg2ZDhlZDI=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmexk72i

43cbd0bd3e0b66c2cf4f965687528e5f

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▲撒哈拉沙漠走不过去NWQwOGY4ODZkOGNlZQ==,但是可以坐船坐灰机0b4297c48d9bab3614f2e37777fbd97d,葡萄牙是他们的欧洲第一站事情发生得很蹊跷QDVkMDhmODg2ZDhjZmY=,一家航空公司将未煮熟的猪肉料理航空餐当成泔水送到了里斯本郊外的养猪场28c09a08d30009daf29ad7349e6daa723e4d8b12。吃了受污染饲料的当地猪很快感染了病毒394e78099c3e91215759090cf0d7d5d8,成了病猪9b174a16db8daa9c1d339fa97e07bc31921109a1。西非曾经是葡萄牙的殖民地d64dea44c60b2685ae6d2fab436fd20548ff8f92,两地一直保持着较为密切的联系QDVkMDhmODg2ZDhkMTc=,虽然这次疫情被扑灭MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n56wtcui,但进入西非的非洲猪瘟总会再找机会登陆葡萄牙的MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5-9tbmia4f4321d59228d96af12b83328acd9b7f30ff259

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▲源头上一直颇为混乱QDVkMDhmODg2ZDhkMjg=,想在末端防住就很难了1960年015662b7ac0b5fa4b310db5565678cc41526038e,葡萄牙和西班牙双双爆发非洲猪瘟JDVkMDhmODg2ZDhlZjM=。为了根除非洲猪瘟的传播IzVkMDhmODg2ZDhkMzk=,西班牙政府还大刀阔斧地进行了农场现代化改造cab156451093394e35f761afd0e0cc8ff2eb63d5,以隔绝蜱虫的影响ITVkMDhmODg2ZDhlZmM=。然而效果只能说是一般7daf5d8466e3073c43a5dc22324a2285,病毒已经在伊比利亚半岛扎下了根bc952e98ec73560a5dfa769a4957c23a8566a361,而被污染的猪肉和猪饲料仍然在欧洲大陆上接力51af34b9f9aae317256edb7730a481ef81c9a4e8MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nme9pbmi

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KjVkMDhmODg2ZDg4ZWM=

JjVkMDhmODg2ZDg4ZjQ=

KjVkMDhmODg2ZDg4ZmQ=

▲非洲猪瘟+蜱虫在成功拿下伊比利亚半岛后c65fa6b84fe95f0823b28c71bf4b8b591716082b,整整肆虐了30年之久此后MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qid2FqbyYg3qMnLN6iGS9sqGi,马耳他和撒丁岛同样因为飞机传播病猪制品出现了非洲猪瘟MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qid2FqbyYg3qMnLN6iGWyoqGi,法国和比利时也未能幸免JTVkMDhmODg2ZDhmMGQ=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nme9zrmi

经过将近30年的治理MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n56x26Wi,非洲猪瘟才在欧洲大陆上勉强绝迹JTVkMDhmODg2ZDhmMTU=。除了撒丁岛以外5ad6f4a514a1a183b17d151c1827a318,欧洲各国都宣布已经正式消灭了非洲猪瘟d43226052cb878cd66cad458c5690621ec9067af516115f58018f462427977902670130b

3c0ef6f04c58507aa0c1a1d671f60182b0ccfdfe

d5f32d5fe121d810fce7c9ce672171fc4a1976fb

XjVkMDhmODg2ZDg5Mjg=

NWQwOGY4ODZkODkzNA==

▲这一波攻击也算是把西欧折腾得够呛除了欧洲MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753n56xk7mi,非洲猪瘟也登陆了岛国林立的加勒比海地区e696c51e10cf3f2f55fc52643249ff93e4c3909f,尤其是在古巴dcc767b53ef13c45096c4ff6a698d8c2776c5d22。有阴谋论认为91892ff15d8cad5c414ae2cdb06e18dcf15eb889,和非洲八杆子打不着的古巴之所以爆发非洲猪瘟是因为美国特工将毒株带入了该国JTVkMDhmODg2ZDhkOWY=,旨在推翻卡斯特罗政权43337c13a32673b99b97dd93fd998a50。无论这一消息是否属实532ec17df8caedd5b7f75e99440c6eed3f6bd26c,非洲猪瘟对卡斯特罗的打击确实是巨大的329ba31afebac18064d4705e7da3e9616b206b01。古巴在70年代扑杀了50万头猪才终于消灭了疫情dd0f66e5a4730bfa2a87c20bf369d474MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmiw272i

IzVkMDhmODg2ZDg5NDY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmixpcei

KjVkMDhmODg2ZDg5NTQ=

9be9454b0d67bff5744792dcdc8b026c

▲虽然猪瘟可能影响了古巴的共产主义建设MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n568tcei,但是古巴人民也在猪湾沉重打击了美国侵略者MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n568uLmi,算不算扯平了MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmixuLGi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmixy7Wi

fbd14e822cac0c54f4eb86adfc82f0a2f1954903

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmix28ei

KjVkMDhmODg2ZDg5ODY=

35481faff4a2b15255a6ae10662e11c0780c5fde

JDVkMDhmODg2ZDg5OTc=

002f270b168ef656c7ff789bb5da705b

▲一旦病毒跟着野猪翻过了高加索山b54f52866bdfa47246403636e321ac0e,那可就“广阔天地大有可为”了JDVkMDhmODg2ZDg5YTU=

JDVkMDhmODg2ZDg5YWM=

JDVkMDhmODg2ZDg5YjM=

e9799a8085e5f57c7aff4132033fe95d00636449

31e5ed93f61514ed1c7758a427fd35453310bbdd

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmi8262i

5a8c4aa290fb790120920bb148daf0c8d8ae299f

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtGDpsvRg3qZY753nmi9paWi

fe838ce964fb9158bb06ed33e7cd1d4617b267fd

QDVkMDhmODg2ZDg5ZTQ=

JDVkMDhmODg2ZDg5ZWI=

a0e61fb0c961e5f8da298b8de1f47eb5

9cbe288a736431b875596ebe2f3355be30f764cb

8a77bb6d6e9ae7e23ad3ff8da8487c00

IzVkMDhmODg2ZDhhMDk=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5uwqKmi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5uwtbWi

c7b2e2cb440f7010830e628661d1fba5

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5uwy62i

▲俄罗斯病猪处理MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5uwy8-i

b8041468ab82508f2fe42fe04804e494cfd0505b

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5uwk6mi

ITVkMDhmODg2ZDhhNDk=

6ce461c05a3be1c1bbf8930183e14eb21e82719c

1273e8e4d9d4ad461dbc14a60fd3eb57

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6Qid2FqbyYg3qMnLN6fGS8sqGi

8b14c8567f0e41c9f4059a3e096acfa80c489a34

XjVkMDhmODg2ZDhhNzM=

但谁也想不到8e09a164d18331f571842aba27f460697a0a5736,几十年后JTVkMDhmODg2ZDhkZDA=,这种顽固的病毒会卷土重来MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtGDpsvRg3qZY753n569pami,而且来势更凶XjVkMDhmODg2ZDhmNDM=c24d4150826670aaeb4b8bcc79abe3fc

30460739a3a3824965d0362f2a9201bb110c6d9f

JjVkMDhmODg2ZDhhOGI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtGDpsvRg3qZY753n5uyqLGi

efee113b9c5edcad0691e77177ccd46d

 

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