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非洲猪瘟是如何传入中国的?

非洲猪瘟从去年年中以来就频频占据中国农业和食安类新闻的头条ITVjOTgyZDlkOGE2N2U=,不仅在养殖户中JTVjOTgyZDlkOGE2ODc=,也在一般市民食客的心中激起了轩然大波8a27f90f03f1a3e335a265b7f223184ec8109d57JTVjOTgyZDlkOGExYWU=

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MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fKu9pcei

▲一时间真是说什么的都有XjVjOTgyZDlkOGExZTY=

1273fc18823ab72bd9f35245884603e8

其实市民们大可不必担心eb317fe79448aed6106782777524d584,非洲猪瘟并不会传染给人类57cc6039fc659f120d65860f9e61caa0,即使不慎食用了病死猪肉也不会有生命危险172e3bacf76e85dd7f6388c77ae2bb99c677642c。真正应该忧心的是家猪养殖户JTVjOTgyZDlkOGE2YTM=,因为猪只要一接触这种非洲猪瘟就会得病KjVjOTgyZDlkOGE2YWI=,造成巨大的经济损失MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGi828-i06f1ea0e40a76a4e461b56a4afc7c74a

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▲猪瘟在这个世界上已经存在很久了c958f5fd0fb008480d888ee162034224

其实让养猪户们非常想不通的一件事情是MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGW8uLGi,非洲的猪瘟MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2HkZyxsqGi,怎么就跑到中国来祸害猪了呢?9f2fb10196b0b2bfcd39e0581402d6bc

是啊JTVjOTgyZDlkOGE2YzQ=,非洲猪瘟是怎么来到中国的呢?c93cecda6fe4e0a5f3957a24330dabb3b673b81e

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fKyw27Gi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fKywk7Wi

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fKyxqK2i

▲这怎么就从非洲一路拱到了东亚呢JjVjOTgyZDlkOGEyNjI=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fKyxy7Wi

非洲猪瘟不是“猪瘟”MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2HgGW9sqGi

在非洲猪瘟流行前565fea5443da4ec605d3d4609d5d1ada,世界上的养猪户最担心的猪瘟病是传统猪瘟MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGW8k72i,也叫古典猪瘟c1b25e4cfbc29e951e9e4558d442070c120927e1。名字虽古典a2d7f43bc9b700da448ef4a9d375ab828c90930f,但这种猪瘟的历史却并不算久远9b132231ee29a78c866b35c2d6898b78,甚至可以看成是一场新大陆对旧大陆的一次报复NWM5ODJkOWQ4YTllMg==QDVjOTgyZDlkOGEyN2Y=

KjVjOTgyZDlkOGEyODg=

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▲来自西半球的神秘古典猪瘟...古典猪瘟于1810年最早爆发于美国MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2HkZ-x2KGi,是新大陆出现的猪类病毒性疾病JDVjOTgyZDlkOGE5ZWI=。其在1820年代传入欧洲MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGW9y6mi,相继在法国、德国爆发038b6fe33514f5a6c57cc6ea3aef5d9d,一路传到了欧亚大陆的东端e46c91c76f63657cc30c55c5f0610ad3。虽然此后一百年4e2c6e933936097ac2ed9dfd1f6d30d9,人类开发出了针对这种猪瘟的血清975ee8c928394525f4f0753a3256a29030709ddf,但古典猪瘟仍然没有被完全消灭MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2HmquxyKGi,至今仍时有患病猪出现1dcdbe8e05e0eefd984df6faec2ef382XjVjOTgyZDlkOGEyYWU=

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▲古典猪瘟在欧洲的分布这一次出现的非洲猪瘟(ASF)和古典猪瘟并不是一回事QDVjOTgyZDlkOGE3MjQ=,所以说起这场瘟疫的时候可不能将其简称为“猪瘟”MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2Hmqyx2KGi,以免与古典猪瘟混为一谈MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGi9zrGiQDVjOTgyZDlkOGEyZDU=

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▲但是对猪而言1809723d5280cae4e9586cc2337c9595394db726,仿佛是同一个意思值得一提的是57f094cb277a0d7bbca8419e5f2a91a5,非洲猪瘟病毒(ASFV)倒确实诞生于非洲c1591733ee7aa14e2fafeea88664cdbc093e74f8,和西班牙流感、香港脚这种和冠名地名其实毫无关系的疾病/症状比起来59dea76b92cf15ee253b4d359a637d0e,是名副其实的1c9fd5851340e88269bc0207301b07fd652fc835e05d46545c6c94931ae6ef18877f248d

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▲在猪的全球分布方面221fd708f335d5c8723c8cb393ef20028926036a,非洲猪只占很低的比例c56272cfe3c5f8df9ade57fedeccf4b1,所以猪瘟病毒(ASFV)要想取得成功MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGaxy7Gi,关键是要传播到欧洲和东亚两大地区和几乎所有的病毒致病体一样d22b49dc7f391646d427565c5debd24ac3b11bb9,非洲猪瘟病毒进入病猪体内后QDVjOTgyZDlkOGE3N2E=,通过提取病猪细胞内的有用物质MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGaxk62i,建立自己的“病毒工厂”8cf7050e6e5542239ea5847a9ff35471,生产更多致病体NWM5ODJkOWQ4YTc5Mg==,并通过体液、粪便等流出体外f197f9050551f60462b19eb37fe40b86,继续感染其他健康的猪d7e2c097bfcec1736f15287a306fafe1,在短距离内甚至可以通过空气传播fc005f76318158669d64bf7d23d90483530c1d7b7b12ef84d0127f41c46db56b997fac277e2fa06a

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▲这种环境显然很适合传播其实从生物角度来说MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGa8ta2i,非洲猪瘟病毒是一种DNA病毒XjVjOTgyZDlkOGE3YjE=,相比于RNA病毒结构相对稳定XjVjOTgyZDlkOGE3Yjg=,本应是适合开发疫苗的致病体类型45adab4e02383ae6ba49fcf08f90526bf0f166c0。但这种病毒的结构过于顽固IzVjOTgyZDlkOGE3YmY=,人类并没有找到开发轻微毒性毒株的方法MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGa826Wi,所以市面上还没有批量生产的非洲猪瘟疫苗JjVjOTgyZDlkOGFhMjY=MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fK2xqK2i

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▲一只猪就可以祸害一群猪MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGa828ei,而且还没得疫苗可打这给非洲猪瘟的防疫工作带来了巨大的挑战XjVjOTgyZDlkOGFhMmU=。各国只能通过在外贸港口设置严格的检疫系统04974ddebc94b96f132757e6bac405db,甚至禁止从瘟病高发国家进口猪肉来勉强预防NWM5ODJkOWQ4YWEzOA==。然而这种预防方式漏洞百出XjVjOTgyZDlkOGE3ZTA=,除了人类会为了追求低成本走私病死猪肉以外4216962c66dd312c22c42c96ab7c36af,野猪和一些昆虫也能带着病毒在国境间穿梭22fe7e90bc77c70ac521e38f1c0a2696,让非洲猪瘟的传播面进一步扩大MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fZuw28-ic87c598d9d989b52de2677f2bf5b6040309a125f

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▲对于非洲猪瘟的“原产地”来说NWM5ODJkOWQ4YTdmNg==,病原可以长期存在于当地的生态环境中MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGa9y8ei,并在合适的机会下不断向外输出....而这种猪瘟病毒的传播史dd743deaee46e598cd0f0b3d5ccebd0714b1e52c,便是一次明证JDVjOTgyZDlkOGFhNDg=IzVjOTgyZDlkOGEzYTk=

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从非洲到欧洲JjVjOTgyZDlkOGEzYmU=

非洲猪瘟病毒最初出现在撒哈拉以南的非洲e697d113bc082f383f9c7bc92211f323。当地的野猪和疣猪身上经常携带有这种病毒KjVjOTgyZDlkOGE4MTE=,而以吸野猪血为生的软蜱则成为了病毒的传播介质JjVjOTgyZDlkOGFhNTY=。在从病猪身上吸血之后MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGewta2i,蜱虫会在猪群中跳跃转移372623870b1c1c5dda291210a7a2f025,在吸下一只野猪时将病毒带入其体内4700734b7fc2d5fb8e19e0179856665bbad07ca1MDAwMDAwMDAwMIF9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fK28zr2i

野猪、疣猪和软蜱显然都更喜欢温暖湿润的环境ba7132c1ae4db450d53ede338bd2f4b7,而由于撒哈拉沙漠的存在8faf4b09a1529cebc1a569b039cc32d4,南部非洲的很多疾病都难以传播到欧亚大陆MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGewzr2i,直到大航海时代加速了微生物之间的交流71df9ee28022d6f66c31944d59e04e1d16b95710741e942a7d9638dfe2e1059c6ce763fca5e2acb4

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但是这并没有造成非洲野猪的灭绝060f433a4b1d78123cf0752aac9235e0cc5be726,因为这种病毒带来的症状只会影响到幼年野猪961bc1a9dfa96536cdbc1ceaaa5a7706,成年野猪很少因感染而死110000b76103d8a1eca5ffcc306c195641df04ef919d902832acb36db1f997d8

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▲只有小才会被病毒欺负不过随着病毒的进一步扩散MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGexpb2i,在非洲殖民地养猪的英国人开始感觉到了不对MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fZuxzrGi。家猪对这种病毒的抵抗力不如野猪MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2HnmO9yKGi,一旦感染之后MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGextcei,无论成幼JDVjOTgyZDlkOGE4Njc=,都会出现发烧、心跳加快、分泌粘液、消化道出血等症状a350fc6a89e790a9d2632e9274e446a95f4a3fa7。最急性和急性感染死亡率高达100%JTVjOTgyZDlkOGE4NmU=,而且传播特别迅速MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGexzr2i,养猪场损失惨重ITVjOTgyZDlkOGFhODI=ab0e5a8c4307df215f1f95daaa6a4787237671a1

1921年90e0b4b333af68afee1fa81e15f14681399fa76d,当地兽医无法控制疫情MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGexk72i,只能将其记录下来1ce77077e481068c2da87be4a0812938662c8415,发表在《病理学》杂志上MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGeyqLmi,称为“在英国东非(肯尼亚殖民地)发生的一种猪瘟”70ca45c04c6a8c9cdd860f094cc39910KjVjOTgyZDlkOGE0Mjg=

有兴趣的同学也可以去瞅瞅cf666bb2612f383ca490e6b13d52c8e1,一个网址:https://zh.scribd.com/document/291348219/On-a-Form-of-Swine-Fever-Occuring-in-British-East-Africa57fc1fbcfd28718782531836614e411e073727cf

JDVjOTgyZDlkOGE0Mzc=

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8d8c2f5f43a14e6f635c36b3751fbd5c

60年代MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2Hn5uxsqGi,在东非和南非肆虐的非洲猪瘟开始从传到了西非51ebcf7095c694cccee3ac56c9e615544043bbcf,塞内加尔、喀麦隆、安哥拉(前葡殖民地)等国分别发出了预警MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fZuyqLGi。1996年d6429efc2ef8f6405422dfc7bc5645ff,非洲猪瘟在科特迪瓦出现标志着席卷西非的大流行的开始MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fZuytceiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGOxpcui

而与之几乎同时期的发生的事MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGe8zrGi,则是非洲猪瘟与1957年第一次进入了葡萄牙MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2KfZuwsqGiMDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGOxtaWi

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▲撒哈拉沙漠走不过去60955f812de46c1e8616d769ed0b6fa7a09cce5d,但是可以坐船坐灰机KjVjOTgyZDlkOGE4ZDQ=,葡萄牙是他们的欧洲第一站事情发生得很蹊跷cd6157f13b033dc4793066364cf9a561,一家航空公司将未煮熟的猪肉料理航空餐当成泔水送到了里斯本郊外的养猪场IzVjOTgyZDlkOGFhYWU=。吃了受污染饲料的当地猪很快感染了病毒JTVjOTgyZDlkOGE4ZTM=,成了病猪MDAwMDAwMDAwMHmzjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fZu8uL2i。西非曾经是葡萄牙的殖民地530cfc0eb6c35ede4abd81f34d0d7b7c,两地一直保持着较为密切的联系6f5719838bb5e3c7680b10bbe1718e20,虽然这次疫情被扑灭1531820750bc0f74b71fc4190265ea72dddb8b6f,但进入西非的非洲猪瘟总会再找机会登陆葡萄牙的MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fZu8y72iQDVjOTgyZDlkOGE0ODg=

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▲源头上一直颇为混乱34160147784a80bec3a80b3b4a44c318,想在末端防住就很难了1960年74295a53e4d83db4951875c6ab2ca3b7,葡萄牙和西班牙双双爆发非洲猪瘟b3fc282e52d7819f6f0123937d3b933c。为了根除非洲猪瘟的传播NWM5ODJkOWQ4YTkxMw==,西班牙政府还大刀阔斧地进行了农场现代化改造JDVjOTgyZDlkOGE5MWQ=,以隔绝蜱虫的影响MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fZu827Wi。然而效果只能说是一般87440acd3f66b6a57f302d48f5aa9ed9c20d82fb,病毒已经在伊比利亚半岛扎下了根fcc76bf9384f1cf63aac277bed5a5a13,而被污染的猪肉和猪饲料仍然在欧洲大陆上接力6a12f19e07f3553a7bdf79e9471e6522ITVjOTgyZDlkOGE0YjE=

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▲非洲猪瘟+蜱虫在成功拿下伊比利亚半岛后d66d8fb8d715a7f99678b4b0a349d848,整整肆虐了30年之久此后XjVjOTgyZDlkOGE5NDM=,马耳他和撒丁岛同样因为飞机传播病猪制品出现了非洲猪瘟8b37405ed661c85ec7fbcdd6bc081a3ac13766f2,法国和比利时也未能幸免5343c4000b39d4984640740fb9d67b8d66c1507b53e406a5ed0acc15a6b163e11f6e34d12c5ff65d

经过将近30年的治理JTVjOTgyZDlkOGE5NTQ=,非洲猪瘟才在欧洲大陆上勉强绝迹JjVjOTgyZDlkOGFhZTI=。除了撒丁岛以外61047567471dbd04bd6b32e72d1fa206be13c964,欧洲各国都宣布已经正式消灭了非洲猪瘟d1cd4341a544d89cd2551e5535a7aac17cdbb0f6ITVjOTgyZDlkOGE0ZGU=

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XjVjOTgyZDlkOGE0Zjc=

3635d6175534d138f562a1f2197de1f49e989c19

▲这一波攻击也算是把西欧折腾得够呛除了欧洲b65c3b3bafe8a08f77f54993692ff2bb,非洲猪瘟也登陆了岛国林立的加勒比海地区f16a2d73f36e6e5ca19ee0ba3b678dde5ba2099d,尤其是在古巴ITVjOTgyZDlkOGFhZjA=。有阴谋论认为KjVjOTgyZDlkOGE5NzQ=,和非洲八杆子打不着的古巴之所以爆发非洲猪瘟是因为美国特工将毒株带入了该国285cde1cb110b4a67e3f67a221e90f62,旨在推翻卡斯特罗政权44bb3cc569d7e4f83b347f30a507af53ff8131a5。无论这一消息是否属实577d1c55dc2617cb9df652e00ef184be,非洲猪瘟对卡斯特罗的打击确实是巨大的JTVjOTgyZDlkOGFhZmU=。古巴在70年代扑杀了50万头猪才终于消灭了疫情f18c157441cc3e7a6e0efaa0a4a8a0edIzVjOTgyZDlkOGE1MDg=

b30123a1f8393df0f41206d1e906c73f4ec309de

dd11cc9ca79f5fb489226cf11630900b

9eb2dce8ff283c5b65287fae56a31f26

JDVjOTgyZDlkOGE1Mjk=

▲虽然猪瘟可能影响了古巴的共产主义建设0d0280619ad75a5427e16bd95ba865f7e5009aab,但是古巴人民也在猪湾沉重打击了美国侵略者97d6278f7c7709ee11e0e6701ef1c1d9a7cd2b18,算不算扯平了df23ffd90e75d8d03a9bb53791d6e753

27cec0c32eb86967c2d4304657a6aed71084695e

1f4d17c935a57a273f46cecd8f0cfe3655d52ea7

76b6a698eca0c99f891513ead50f452c

ITVjOTgyZDlkOGE1NTc=

KjVjOTgyZDlkOGE1NWU=

JjVjOTgyZDlkOGE1NjU=

JDVjOTgyZDlkOGE1NmM=

▲一旦病毒跟着野猪翻过了高加索山9717e5c7fafa98eda524bf34b587fafa,那可就“广阔天地大有可为”了8aa0b76647003744afddb52d1950bce2

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGSx27Wi

98621e7dfff7e1b0734b5e073c942661

83583c8872f461cf441600d7b28ec696726ad138

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2HjGiwyKGi

ITVjOTgyZDlkOGE1YTM=

ITVjOTgyZDlkOGE1YWE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGS8uK2i

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGS8y62i

94460d2d7fa9827529241f31ecbe6b32

IzVjOTgyZDlkOGE1YzY=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqjjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGS828ei

f859a0a827ee905c5cc0798e7ab356c8

1aa7c265a3de0f14e06333ab6ba019dff7863236

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHujjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGS9qLmi

f489747b1e5e1e0c750583e639366f5181090b43

MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2HjZ-9sqGi

ffee483439ecc998623bd3292e3cd379

86bd17421e9cd082d1220a5948362060

▲俄罗斯病猪处理7137ee4393a4981ae357980cc743967b87779265

JjVjOTgyZDlkOGE2MTM=

6afb5201c06882d9afd19c5efb1c66762fdb6aee

f1dfd8a96532f316655da5625522eabf

MDAwMDAwMDAwMIijjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGWwy7Wi

NWM5ODJkOWQ4YTYzMg==

JjVjOTgyZDlkOGE2M2E=

a2d8ab33d5a57ce4dc9e50f0800c2280142be827

IzVjOTgyZDlkOGE2NGE=

但谁也想不到MDAwMDAwMDAwMHp9jtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGiyuK2i,几十年后MDAwMDAwMDAwMH6QhZuFpq3Pg42DZb2Ho5uxsqGi,这种顽固的病毒会卷土重来XjVjOTgyZDlkOGE5YjY=,而且来势更凶349d5f019210dffa3c3e1b8b154f11c42c3cc637154db4df828134fbaab888f4ec2a339d

97f437c31371994143d61270e0c4e0c8

JDVjOTgyZDlkOGE2NjE=

MDAwMDAwMDAwMHqNjtCFtsrdjnqenLN6fGWxy62i

118192e9298220254f419e376c582041fbfefd24

 

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